If the hydrological cycles continue to run without any disruption while supporting profuse biological diversity, it means that environmental sustainability is prevailing successfully. “Environmental science is applied to both the proactive and restorative aspects of environmental sustainability” (Fletcher n.p.).
The wildlife of Libya spreads over the Mediterranean coastline, which comprises large areas of Saharan desert. The protected areas of Libya comprises any geographical protected for specific use. Many protected areas are meant for conservation of fauna and flora.
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The interruption of person-to-person transmission of poliomyelitis by vaccination is the primary goal of global polio vaccination. Polio vaccine has eliminated polio from most countries around the world and reduced the worldwide incidence from approximately three and fifty thousand in 1988 to two hundred and twenty-three cases in 2012.
The numbers of endangered animals begin to diminish. These species face the danger of going extinct. Bernau (2006) argues that zoologists and botanists have tried to identify the factors behind widespread endangering; these include loss of habitat as people encroach on their ecosystems, increased variety of diseases, and reduced adaptive capabilities.
Monoclonal antibodies are characterized by their monovalent affinity, because they are known to attach themselves to the particular epitome (Marvin and Zhu, 2005). They are also identified as monovalent, because they can be produced from any substance, and they will be able to attach themselves to the given substance.
Although all manta rays are massive, there are several different species that occur around the world, and each one varies slightly in size. Despite its giant appearance, it prefers inshore waters, and only seldom journeys into the depths of the open ocean.
Stem cells are cells that have the ability to reproduce on their own over a long period of time without being differentiated. They also have the capability to reproduce nonpermanent progenitor cells with a very limited capacity of proliferation. From the cells, a variety of highly differentiated cells such as blood, muscle, and neural cells form.
River health is measured by use of structural and functional characteristics of the river or stream. Structural characteristics of a stream measures the biotic and abiotic resources present within the river ecosystem and thus measures the water quality and the composition of invertebrate organisms.
These methods evoke numerous controversies among the researchers and scientists in this field. Nevertheless, it is relevant to chose effective methods and asses their applicability, reliability and range. Very often population specific data are required. There is a different degree of the method’s efficiency.
?.10 Figure4: Principles of immunohistochemistry………………………………………………12 Figure 5: Steps involved in western blotting………………………………………………..14 The Rationale behind Antibody Usage in Common Laboratory Assays Such As ELISA, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, and Western Blotting, their Relative Advantages and Disadvantages Introduction The immune system produces antibodies in reaction to an assortment of foreign substances as well as infections in the body.
The repair pathway has been linked to colon cancer in humans via association between MI in colon tumours found in HNPCC families. MIs are short and repetitive sequences that are incorrectly copied by the DNA polymerase since the template and daughter strands found in the region are prone to misalignment.
The author analyzes the concept of blood transfusion from a risky and fatal system to a safe and secure process with accurate projections of possible outcomes. He states that early transfusions used whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma and platelets.
Types of cancer There are basically 5 types of cancers: carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphomas and leukemias, germ cell tumor and blastoma. Carcinomas are cancers that are derived from the epithelial cells. Cancers of the breast, lung, prostate, colon and pancreas fall into this category.
One of the many aspects that help to separate humans from the remainder of the animal kingdom is with regards to the process of crying. It is a process that has not oftentimes garnered a great deal of attention; however, it is nonetheless unique to humans as compared to the remainder of fellow primates as well as the animal kingdom in general.
Cloning has also been performed on a scale as large as an individual organism an example of which was the sheep Dolly. There is a single parent in cloning unlike the reproduction which happens with the mating of two parents; a male and a female. Some plants have been demonstrating the process of cloning for thousands of years, but their contribution in the ethical debates about the legitimacy of cloning of animals or humans is nil.
Such factor categorizes the animal to homoeothermic or ectothermic group. According to Zuo et al., ectotherms are species whose body temperature changes with the changing environmental temperatures (1840). Thus, the change in the body temperature will affect the biochemical reactions in the body of an ectothermic species.
The portion of the DNA today used on most occasions for taxonomic reasons for bacteria is referred to as the 16SrRNA gene. This gene is also designated as 16SrDNA, where the two terms have been used interchangeably but now the ASM policy currently stipulates that 16SrRNA gene takes priority (Jill, 2004).
According to the report ecological succession and climax vegetation often become the features of biomes and a biome is not defined in terms of genetic, historical, or taxonomic similarities unlike in the case of ecozones. In addition, a biome is a major habitat type and it has an intrinsic inhomegeneity.
Cancer and biopsies Name of the student: Course code: Tutor: Date of submission: Cancer and biopsies Introduction Based on Science Daily Newspaper that covers scientific themes and issues, my preffered topic from this newspaper is cancer and biopsies. With reference to the article dated 8th December 2011, the article caught the interest of majority of its readers since it helps in passing the information, and creating awareness on one of the most common killer disease on the planet called cancer.
An unknown etiology is reported to be associated with the condition. It is an akinetic-rigid form or parkinsonism, the condition is exemplified due to early falls and abnormalities of extraocular movements. The onset of the condition is around 63 years of age and the individual is known to survive for the period of 9 years after the onset of this rare condition.
Further applications of genetics gave way to the human genome project, mapping the human genes responsible for traits and diseases. The event with one of the most significance in the field of genetics is the Chernobyl Accident in Belarus in 1986, and the effect of ionizing radiation to genetic material in all organisms as a strong mutagenic agent was established as an important finding in hereditary studies.
The author of the paper suggests that the other purpose of the law, at least explicitly and directly, was to make sure that the country’s watersheds were protected from being eroded, as well as from becoming flooded, with the protected trees providing the needed brake to such environmental effects.
It is an evident fact that every macronutrient aids a human body with different biological purposes. These macronutrients would include proteins, carbohydrates etc. Reduction of any group or category of macronutrients would result in deficiency in human body.
Right whales are classified as marine mammals. They belong to the ‘cetaceans’ group; the term cetacean means ‘sea monster’ or ‘whale’. Right whales, similar to the North Atlantic right whale, are one of the rarest marine mammals (Knowlton & Kraus 193).
The article published in BBC news covered the results of the Big butterfly Count Survey which was organized by the U.K based Butterfly Conservation charity. According to the article the great increase in the number of butterflies which had been calculated as a grand total of 830,000, was a result of prevalent warmer conditions that had occurred during the summer since butterflies and moths are cold blooded and rely heavily upon temperature.
A vigorous reef ecosystem contains tremendous activity, colors and sounds, and is filled with significantly compact aggregations of invertebrates and fish. In this view, tropical reefs are more evocative of the Serengeti in Africa than of the tropical forest they are frequently contrasted to, where the native mammals and birds can be difficult to observe and are secretive.
Scientists, however, have proven beyond any reasonable doubt that indeed such bacteria exist in milk. The list of these bacteria is endless, and the diseases caused by them have had extensive effects on the human body functioning. Change in milk bacteria has been found to affect the prevalence of a number of diseases.
Lactase non persistence, on the other hand, is the condition in which an adult lacks the digestive enzyme for lactose thus leading to health complications after consumption of milk. The presence and absence of the gene responsible for digestion of milk is quite divergent in the human population.
From the research, it can be comprehended that in younger cultures Clostrodium tetani stains Gram positive, but in older cultures some of them may stain Gram negative. Clostridium tetani is mobile bacteria and has flagella. On one end of the bacteria there is a large, round spore that gives the bacteria a drumstick or tennis racket shape.
Several issues discussed in the paper are; the DNA damage checkpoint, cell cycle progression, associated signalling pathways, growth factors and the receptor tyrosine. The aspect of life response to changes` is explained by the phenomenon whereby CukE and Milk enabled the cell reindeer to multiply, as it is outlined in the book ` Biology Today and Tomorrow’ The book indicates that organisms tend to keep their internal operating conditions within a given range that the cell can tolerate in a state known as homeostasis (Dworkin, 35).
The arctic tundra is in the northern hemisphere and consists of completely frozen soil and oceans. In addition to the harsh climatic conditions, the region located in the far end of the world experiences irregular patterns of sunlight with certain seasons being compeletly dark for several months.
To achieve a good and healthy body, first thing that will be considered is proper nutrition. Nutrition is the manner of consuming and using food that helps maintain growth and good health (Bender & Bender, 1995). Healthy lifestyle is a long journey in which one must need to adhere with dietary guidelines and recommended intakes to achieve their goals.
Disassembly of proteins is also called as proteolysis. First of all, proteins in our food are broken down into smaller units called as peptide chains. Many digestive enzymes include pepsin, trypsin, elastase and chymotrypsin. These peptides are further converted into amino acids by various proteolytic enzymes.
It is widely known as the dystrophin-asociated sarcopglycan, sarcospan and dystroglycan, colocalize with the dystrophin at castamere. This dystrophin gene is among the longest human gene covering about 2.2 megabases at locus Xp21. The mature mRNA measure about 14.0 kilobases, and the primary transcript is known to measure about 2,400 kilobases.
In arriving at this end, the following objectives will be explored: 1. Examination of the organisational philosophy of Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream 2. Assessment of the internal elements and structures of Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream 3. Evaluation of the external environment, stakeholders, industrial trends, structures and competition in the Ice Cream industry that Ben and Jerry operates in.
White-tailed Deer. The white tailed deer or the Virginia deer is the most widely distributed hoofed animals in the United States. Its scientific name is Odocoileus virginianus. As Patent (2004) describes, thirty eight types of white tailed deer live in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America and South America.
There are many types of cancer. As the name indicates, cancer cells are produced in the breast part with the possibility of affecting other organs and tissues of the human body. Cells are the basic elements that create tissues in the body. Research (McPhee & Tierney, 2007, pp.
The nature’s thought thus refers to those biologically set down capabilities and tendencies possessed by individuals that may end up in the course of life. Nurture, on the other hand, denotes those environmental or external factors exposed to an individual from the time of conception until death.
Duration of Ultraviolet Exposure that Kills Bacteria
The law of Arrhenius, which was earlier proposed to be describing temperature reliance of precise reaction speed in chemical reaction, seems not to be properly describing the effects of temperature on the growth of bacterial.
It has been observed that in recent years, developed nations are showing a wide prevalence of overweight or obese individuals, while the problem is spreading to the developing nations (despite under-nutrition), thus, turning obesity into a matter of grave danger to the overall public health of a nation.
Another and the most modern and technologically advanced process for the purpose of generating DNA fingerprints is STR i.e. Short Tandem Repeats and PCR i.e. Polymerase Chain Reaction. This technique has revolutionized the world of forensic sciences as the generation of DNA fingerprints and identification process is much quicker and easier now.
It is among the widely used techniques in molecular biology and biochemistry. Gel electrophoresis refers to the method of analysis and separation of macromolecules (proteins, RNA, and DNA) and their respective fragments, depending on their charge and size.
Typically, the process involves a gene incorporation of a foreign gene to the target organism genome. The steps involved for creating genetically modified organism, using maize as an example are. 1. Isolation of the desired gene The very first step is identification of an existing organism exhibiting favourable traits; these traits are traced to the chromosomal characteristics of the known organism.
Apparently, they have been effective in improving the world especially in relation to pollution and environmental degradation. These new approaches aim to do more than make profits. These corporations have been effective in ensuring the environment is conducive for human existence (Kuratko 4).
This term denotes the diversity of life and its usage implies the existence of different species, ecosystems, and genetic variations. Research reveals that there are multiple reasons for the conservation of biodiversity in its complex form. Different organizations have taken a leading role in preserving the biodiversity.
As the disease progresses, changes in the physiology or normal anatomy of the body may be hidden or obvious, happening at the cellular level. Thus, pathophysiology entails some components of pathology, which entails the laboratory study of tissue and cell changes related to disease.
This paper will explore this issue, focusing particularly on the context by which the problem is a public health concern. Its negative impact on the population, particularly among the younger generation will also be explored. Background The standard of measurement that determines whether an individual is overweight is the Body Mass Index or BMI, which measures body size against the height of an individual.
The brain triggers the adrenal glands to release hormones leading to reduced stress levels in the body. The image below is an illustration of the pathway from stress to the production of glucocorticoids, by the adrenal glands, lowering stress levels. The adrenal cortex produces epinephrine and norepiephrine (cortisols) and the adrenal medulla produces adrenaline and noradrenalin.
According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that the pathology of Parkinson’s disease is complicated making the treatment and control of the disease a complex task. The complexity of the disease has made it almost impossible for researchers to settle for a single approach to treating and controlling the disease.
It generally becomes detectable in mid-adult life. It is the most usual genetic reason of abnormal involuntary twisting motions called chorea, that’s why it is often referred as Huntington's chorea. Huntington’s disease is very much common in Western European descendents than in those of African or Asian ancestry.