Blood contains erythrocytes which have hemoglobin which is red in colour. This makes it easily visible unlike other body fluids like saliva, vagina fluid and semen which are colourless and hence they are not easily identified in a crime scene. On top of that blood is easily lost especially in criminal activities which involve use of force (Bevel., Tom and Rose,.
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The problem of saving the African elephant started long ago when the risk of the elephants becoming extinct remained identified. Many came out in support of the laws passed to save the situation whereas others objected the same for their own material gains.
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Attrition is the wear to teeth caused due to interaction between the teeth itself. Excessive loads can cause micro fractures in the enamel region. This is termed as Abfraction. (Adrian Lussi, 2006) Erosion of teeth on the other hand is a result of its interaction with acidic foods which causes decay to the teeth surface in a variety of ways.
How photosynthesis and respiration are linked? And how do they to provide you with energy from the food you eat?
Plants use raw inorganic materials, as water and carbon dioxide and transform them into organic compounds, as starch and sugar, using sunlight as energy, in a process known as photosynthesis .
Medical professionals in research interact with their research subject at a higher level. In medical treatment, these develop a relationship with their patients. It is thus, imperative that they maintain and safeguard the interests of their patients and subjects, who might as well be their patients or other healthy individuals.
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Water Quality and Contamination.
Water quality and contamination is the topic under which this experiment was conducted to test the effects of ground water contamination on the quality of water. There are various sources of ground water contaminants and they all have various levels effect on water quality.
It is also interesting to note that only the members of the Phylum Cnidaria do not possess all three germ layers. When it comes to the number of species, no phyla can outnumber the arthropods, which include arachnids, crustaceans, insects and other subphyla.
Abstract Bloom syndrome is a genetic disorder that occurs due to the inability to conserve the genomic structure of the body (Cohen, 2004). The mishap in genetics comes because of crossovers of sister chromosomes; the syndrome is brought by autosomal resseciveness of BML gene (Cohen, 2004).
Malaria, is a mosquito-borne, protozoal illness, identified as a parasite disease with the vector been a mosquito in early 19th century. It is infection manifest in human beings as a result of infection by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium vivax.
Furthermore, how ATP generates its physiological response in the cell shall be discusses Keywords: Adenosine Tri phosphate, neurotransmitter, physiological response Adenosine triphosphate also known as by its shorter form, ATP, is thought to be the currency of energy with respect to life by many biologists.
The systems are made up of various organs of the body, for example, the respiratory arrangement includes the lungs and the nose. Each of these systems performs different functions from others, but they are interconnected by tissues and fluids. The fluids hold body cells and ensure that they are alive at certain conditions.
Factors dictating the susceptibility of malaria include environmental, parasite virulence and host genetics (Mackinnon et al., 2005). These facts may interplay to determine the cause of the disease. The condition is a product of protozoan parasites of genus Plasmodium.
Bradford assays are among the methods used to determine the concentration of protein, relative to a standard. This technique is based on the formation of a complex between the dye, Brilliant Blue G and proteins in solution. The complex being formed causes a shift in the absorption peak from 465nm to 595nm.
It was the first mark to the sighting of viruses, hereditary entities that are located in between non-living and living states. But alive or not, virus is the most extensive of all pathogens. It has the capability of infecting every species of organism such as fish, mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, insects, bacteria as well as protozoan.
The behaviors under study in this experiment were food searching, food handling, vigilance, and social behavior. We adopted a study design involved a focal study that allowed the researchers to observe squirrels for fifteen minutes. We observed several transitions from one behavior to the other as the squirrels strived to strike a balance between feeding and staying alert of any emerging predators.
Water potential is used to describe the tendency with which water moves from one region to another. This experiment was carried out in order to determine how the rate of osmosis changes under different solute concentrations. Solute concentrations heavily influence how osmosis occurs.
So before sequencing, the DNA is denatured such that the phosphodiester bonds are broken and they become single strands. This is achieved by heating the DNA to high temperature. 2. Electroporation can be used to introduce DNA into different organisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic.
This essay analyzes that to solve problems related to fertility problems, ART was developed as a promising solution. The in Vitro fertilization is a good example of ART. To increase the success rate of IVF, the clinical and laboratory procedures were enhanced in order to reduce the risk of side-effects on the part of the patients.
In order for these systems to work as required and perform their functions normally, specific and stable conditions inside the body are more than necessary. Every single system of the human body is composed of tissues which are then composed of cells. Cell being the basic structural and functional unit of the body works with other cells and provide the body what it needs.
The author states that biodiversity is the variety in all forms of life. It provides us with all ranges of benefits such as vital goods such as timber and medicinal products, and essential services such as carbon cycling, clean water and pollination. Our daily bread, fish, meat, flowers, books and building timber materials are all gifts of nature.
Studies reveal that tumorigenesis is responsible for proliferation of cancer. In case of breast cancer a variety of proto-oncogenes, such as c-myc, c-erbB-2/neu have been identified. After the human genomic project, research has taken new paradigms to understand the gene-expression and analysis.
There are five avenues via which pollution affects the productivity of the estuary. These five avenues are; agricultural pollution, legacy pollution, sewage, industrial pollution and urban storm water runoff. Main Body Given the number of avenues via which, the San Francisco estuary may be impacted, it is not a surprise as to the major goals the management has set forth to achieve.
Notably, plant enzymes have some advantages over animals and microbial enzymes since they are available from natural sources with low costs and ease of purification. They widely exist in plant and microbial species, but with poor characterization of structure.
The plan is to carry out bioremediation in a two step process. The first step will comprise of microbial degradation by aerobic bacteria. In the second stage microbial degradation will be undertaken by anaerobic bacteria culture. The weapons and explosives are highly toxic and the burial ground should be a restricted site until completion of the bioremediation process.
Cloning entails the intensification of specific DNA segments, leading to the buildup of large amounts of similar DNA fragments, which may be utilized for numerous functions. Conventional molecular cloning uses tailored DNA cloning vectors, which are usually derived from spherical DNA molecules identified as bacterial plasmids.
Arguably, there are considerable variations existing among individuals in a population. Basically, from the evolutionary point of view, such variations are quite essential. Likewise, it can be hypothesized that there are variations in several traits of wood lice (common terrestrial crustacean), in terms of mass, length, plates, and sprint speed that makes some to survive predation than others.
The definition of depression has defined differently in different cultures and has been accompanied extreme pain and headaches. The etiological factors of the disease are not well defined, however, there have been some researches linking depression to genetic and epigenetic factors (Beck & Alford, 2009).
Furthermore, the research aimed at disproving the theory that “sago extraction is an intuitively and technically simple solution to food provision for those reluctant to adopt proper agriculture” (Ellen). This simply means that Ellen’s research wanted to prove that traditional sago palm was NOT an easier alternative to traditional agriculture.
The author gives recommendations regarding treatment. Solutions were found through series of studies and experiments as scientists try to uncover the whole existence of diabetes starting off from its onset. They found out that oxidative stress exist that further push the condition of diabetes and leads to the onset of complications.
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With regards to the symptoms that oftentimes accompany MS and should serve as a warning to the individual that they have the disease, the reader and/or patient should understand that the symptoms can exhibit themselves in a multitude of different ways
Restriction mapping is the process of cutting the Plasmid DNA using the restriction enzymes, and they also give us the idea whether the gene of interest is present in the correct position or not. White plasmid DNA was found to contain three restriction sites, of which two are for Hind III, and one site is for Sac I.
Aspiration of gastric contents leads to a pathological process referred to as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Patients experience gastrointestinal and respiratory complications, which develop to diseases like esophageal cancer when left untreated.
Close to eighty percent of active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished drugs come from nations outside America. Importation of foods from outside countries pose a great risk on the health and lives of both animals and individuals in the U.S. according to a research carried out on the risks associated on food importation, it was discovered that a certain number of animals and people in America die while others suffer from serious infections obtained from some imported foods.
For instance, a study may be published associating on average a specific gene with a certain quantifiable behavior. The media, upon receiving word of this research, will change the wording of the story in order to sensationalize and sell the story as newsworthy, often relying on words like “cause”.
He proposed the natural selection was the process that allowed for evolution to occur and produce the wide range of different types of life that can be observed. The concepts he presented were radical at the time, although natural selection has since become the generally accepted mechanism by which evolution occurs.
In order for hypersensitivity reactions to occur, they need the host to be in a state of pre-sensitization. Gell and Coombs classified these reactions into four groups. These are: allergy, antibody dependent hypersensitivity, immune complex disease, delayed hypersensitivity disease, and autoimmune disease.
There are several reasons why a person is inflicted with this disease though a very definitive cause has not been established for all cancers and it is also known that not all forms of tumors are malignant and dangerous. When cancer really spread in the body, they may also enter through the lymphatic system or bloodstream to sites other than the major organ where these cells lie (Cairns et al 2011).
In the present study, the unknown microorganism present in the Probiotics, maozrella cheese and camembert cheese were analyzed using the biochemical tests such as catalase, oxidase, latex agglutination, Gram’s staining and string test. From the biochemical results it was identified that the unknown microorganisms present in the given samples of probiotics, mozeralla cheese and camembert cheese were Lactobacillus sp, Streptococcus sp and Penicillium sp.
According to the United Nations, the world’s population has now reached 7 billion and is growing at a rate of 1.10% with each year and the average population change stands at 75 million individuals annually (Worldometers, 2012). This population is set to increase in the years to come.
These diseases are very harmful for the human body, as they can affect the body tissues and functions in various adverse ways, resulting in acute inflammatory illnesses, sleep-breathing abnormalities, untreatable skin diseases and many more. If malnutrition is not taken care of, it can sometimes also result in death (Olivares et al 1999; Patterson et al 2000; Kopelman 2000; William et al 2003).
This paper describes features of naked mole rats, with main focus on their eusociality. Only one female mole-rat reproduces by breeding with a few males of the community; while, the rest of the males and females form the labor force which perform tasks like maintenance of colonies, nest building, transportation of soil, and defense.
The number of people suffering from lifestyle diseases such as diabetes, heart diseases and hypertension among others is rising at a worrying rate. This has prompted the health professionals and the population as well to be concerned with food products consumed and how such products are produced.
Scholars have long sought to point to a time in the fossil record where humans first began to domesticate the dog. However, contrary to what many evolutionists and archaeologists previously believed, is now largely understood that the first step towards the domestication of the dog was in fact the domestication of the human.
Once infection occurs, the sporozoite parasites are transported in the victim’s bloodstream to the liver where they mature into merozoites, which re-enter the bloodstream and infect the red blood cells (Shah, 2010). After multiplying in the cells, the parasites break out after 48 to 72 hours.
The book mainly deals with environmental factors that make societies collapse, but also incorporates the contribution of trade partners, hostile neighbors, and climate change. A major focus of the book is the response of past societies to these threats, and the suitability of these responses.
Immunization and Antibody Production 1. Explain antibody formation resulting from both natural and artificial exposure to antigens Immunologically, it is said that the body is naive to the antigen before they encounter them, this brings the theory that the body cannot have specific antibody to any antigen before they encounter them.
These enzymes are copper containing and have the ability to catalyze the oxidation of inorganic and organic substrates including polyphenols, mono-, di -, amino phenols, methoxy phenols, aromatic amines and ascorbate. According to Desai(2011,pg 543-49) “Laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductases, EC 220.127.116.11) are multi-copper enzymes belonging to the group of blue oxidases”.The capacity of laccases to oxidize phenolic compounds and their ability in reducing molecular oxygen to water had encourage its deep study by scientists and researchers.
The genetically modified reference standards were used as controls and the samples were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. GMOs was not identified in all of our soy beans samples with PCR method, we rejected our null hypothesis that stated GMOs was present in our soy beans samples.