Enzymes: What ?They Do, Why They Are Important Enzymes are the cornerstone of life in every being. It is a type of cell that is found in every man, animal, plant, and other life forms. Amino acids of various shapes and sizes, often numbering anywhere from 100 to 100,000 form the basis of enzymes which are considered to be proteins.
HER2 is a membrane-bound surface protein that is associated with cell growth and differentiation (Chazin et al, 1992). As cancers are associated with an increase in cell growth and the absence of differentiation in these cells, any problems with genes associated with proteins with related purposes may be associated with cancers.
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D). In concurrence with Lykken’s report, it is worth exemplifying that autism came into existence way before 1943. Psychologists previously deliberated that for one to be a genius, he had to have high general intelligence. They measured the intelligence level by using astuteness quotient test also known as IQ test.
In this context the paper proceeds to make a comprehensive and in depth study of the various aspects of bird song quality that influence the choice of female and the efforts that are required by the male for maintenance of the song quality. Song output, complexity, geographical variations and vocal performance are the major criteria used to assess the song quality.
In fact, it has caused several plagues, claiming the lives of as much as 20-50 million people worldwide (Kimball, 2009). Despite these devastating effects, it took 15 years for researchers to determine the causative agent of Influenza disease. The Influenza virus is a 100 mm vessel containing matrix proteins and 8 strands of RNA, and enclosed by a lipid bilayer studded with membrane proteins hemagluttinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA).
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Characteristics and morphology The size of the rabies virus is approximately 60 nm ? 180 nm. The virus has an outer envelope, an internal protein core (nucleocapsid), and a bilayer of lipid covered with transmembrane glycoprotein spikes. The genome of the virus encodes five proteins, which are related with “either the viral envelope or the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex” (Rupprecht).
The importance of the Pacific oyster lies in its very high growth rates and high rates of reproduction compared to other oyster species. Many factors affect the ability of the oysters to grow, and the expansion of the oysters industry is limited by many factors such as changes in climate, varying concentrations of nutrients, poisoning by pollution, among many others.
Since decades, P. falciparum has been the foci of attention and subjected to intense study throughout the world. Some aspects of this study include biochemistry of P. falciparum, development of effective vaccines and successful immunization of susceptible individuals.
This paper’s aim is to argue on the negative effects of animal testing using current literature, as well as to react on these current literature and articles and provide insight as to why animal testing in cosmetics is negative and provide alternatives to animal testing in order to still provide a channel for cosmetic companies to test their products before sending them out to market and avoid any adverse effects to humans.
Trap Structure of Utricularia australis Name: Instructor: Trap Structure of Utricularia australis Abstract This paper examines the structure of the Carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia aceustralis) traps. As the name suggests, this is a plant that possess special suction traps that serves to trap prey mostly small insect larvae, corepods, Rotifers, Ciliates as well as phytoplanktons such as algae and cyanobacteria (Alkhalaf, Hubener, & Porembski, 2009).
Furthermore the paper explains the development of the trap and the different stages. The ecology of the plant is also presented which is then related to the nutrient deficiency and the modification and adaptation of the plant. Finally it explains the different theories behind the different mechanism by which this trap works involving the processes of attraction, trapping, retaining, digestion and absorption.
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The author states that cloning is discouraged by various nations as cloning is against the rule of nature, which is generating humans, nurturing them and paving the way for uncertainties related with the repercussions of science. At present human population has crossed the figure of 7 billion, a huge burden on the planet.
Cells are the building blocks of life, or they may be life on their own. Cells are made up of several smaller pieces including the cell wall, organelles, and cytoplasm. There are two major types of cells. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not.
Of the major attractions to marine zoological parks are killer whales which are also referred to as the orcas. Even though these animals are referred to as whales, they are not actually whales but large dolphins (King 4). The reason as to why these animals are referred to as the killer whales is because of their tendency to kill whales for food (King 4).
Inborn errors of metabolism are hereditary diseases in which the cellular metabolism is abnormal due to an inherited defect in an enzyme. Inborn errors of metabolism usually manifest in the neonate or an infant but can even be first seen in an adult. Abnormalities in the production or metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates etc are usually due to a single gene defect.
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They are characterized by a combination of good and bad ideas, which makes them subjects of scrutiny. The origin of HIV has puzzled many scientists since the disease first came into public’s awareness in the early 1980s. For over two decades, it has been a subject of debate, and the cause of many arguments.
The slopes of this marvelous area are covered by dense forest at the foot of grassy mountain pastures. It is a geographically unique area with more than 200 endemic species. The species found in Mount Nimba include varieties of duikers, big cats, civets, Chimpanzees, and several types of viviparous toads.
According to Chris (1999), the African elephant, Loxodanta africana inhabited virtually all parts of the continent for many centuries. Currently, the animals are mostly concentrated on the southern Saharan desert, and their numbers are scattered and disjointed in the region. The habitats of elephants in the sub-Saharan Africa are divided into four main zones that include central, southern, western and eastern Africa (Anderson and Coe 1974).
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Honeybee colonies are amazingly well integrated and highly organized. The integrity of the colony is maintained through chemical communication with the help of pheromones. Pheromones are chemical compounds that are produced by organisms to signal or communicate with each other.
Flowering of plants is dependent on light intensity, light duration and quality of light. However there has no clear evidence of what actual effects light intensity has on flowering. In this essay I will identify the role of the Myb-Related Protein (MYR1) and Myb-Related Protein (MYR2) as inhibitors of flowering responses on reduced light intensity in Arabidopsis.
Flow of knowledge, energy and matter is required for their maintenance. Living systems can be unicellular or multi-cellular. As the name suggests, multi-cellular organisms are those made of more than one cell. There can be different kinds of cells, two of which are eukaryote and prokaryote cells.
These duplicates are then provided with favorable growth media and other conditions to proliferate. Initially, only cells were being cloned; but with the course of scientific development the scientists’ progressed unto cloning groups of cells which could be used to develop complete organs or tissues.
[Student’s Name] [Instructor’s Name] [Course Title] 24 November 2011 The Pathophysiology of Hepatitis B Hepatitis B, an infectious disease caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV, a DNA virus), was formerly called serum hepatitis, inoculation hepatitis and post-transfusion hepatitis.
Each and every activity is controlled and coordinated by this important part of the body system. It is comprised of the brain, the spinal cord, the nerves and neurons (Brodal 40).
The central nervous system is divided into two sections: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Various fruits taste differently depending on the major organic compounds present in the fruit (Hulme, 1970). Some of sweet tasting fruits include ripe bananas, apples, guavas, watermelons, mangoes among others. Most fruits from citrus family, such as oranges, lemons, limes and grapefruits have a sour taste.
What role does bundle sheaths play in C4 Plants?
The plants use C3 and C4 photosynthesis for the production of energy. The C4 plants are very less in number but they contribute to 25% of the photosynthesis that occurs on earth. C4 plants are classified into three groups based on the major decarboxylase enzyme involved in the decarboxylation of C4 acid cells.
People in a comfortable position must contribute extensively to eradicate Poverty only then will the world become a better place to live in. There is a severe shortage of food in African countries, people die in the Dark Continent because of this shortage of food, genetically modified food is really useful and it can save many a life in Africa and all across the globe where poverty and hunger exist.
Bacteria were discovered by Anton Von Leeuwenhoek in 1676, which he called animalcules. Louis Pasteur in 1859 discovered that fermentation is an effect of microbial activity. Robert Koch postulated the ‘Germ Theory’ and went on to win the Nobel Prize in 1905.
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Since the announcements, the quickening pace of discovery relating to the basic biology of human stem cells has been substantial. Generally, this is a result of the promise of the application of these special cells to various therapeutic uses, including the treatment of a variety of diseases that involve tissue and organ degeneration (Nisbet 1).
It exists as a double strand in the cells of the body. Due to advances in cell biology, DNA profiling is a possibility. The procedure depends highly on the ability to amplify DNA through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Polymerase chain reaction is a procedure of amplifying the small samples of DNA into larger samples for manipulation.
Some researchers attribute this diversity to the genetic makeup of an individual asserting that the genetic propensities have a role in the engagement of crime among individuals. It is avowed that the genetic composition of an individual may be interactive or additive to the individual’s engagement on criminal behavior.
These are normally components of many common medicinal yields, detergents and chemicals used to kill herbs. With continuous research, it has now become possible as Fern R. McSorley a Chemistry graduate student of the Queens University in collaboration with Bjarne Jochimsen, a molecular Biology student in at Aarhus University and Bjarne Hove-Jensen, a student at the Biology Department, University of Copenhagen were able to prove that bacteria E.coli could actually breakdown compound in grass and yield bio-fuel which can be used to solve the now eminent the energy crisis (Chen, 2011).
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The menopausal stage continues until the death of the woman or rather the woman does not go back to the earlier stage thus it is permanent. The idea of stopping the menstruation means the woman’s body is undergoing hormonal changes that affect her sexuality.
Channels exist in three different sates: open, closed or inactive. They are composed of different subunits and each subunit is coded for by specific genes (Bernard & Shevell 2008). An ion channel can be either of the voltage gated class or the ligand gated class.
The author was able to identify plant hormones such as auxin that mediate the response of the direction of plant growth to sunlight. He hypothesized that, if plants are exposed to the sun, and other plants are kept from the sun, then the differences in the growth patterns of the plant and the levels of auxin should be related.
Since different strains of the bacteria react differently to gene replacement with lacS gene, these researchers hypothesize that different S. solfataricus strains have different DNA processes as well, including their repair mechanisms. First, each strain was cultured using 0.2 to 0.4 in basal salts medium with 0.1% (wt/vol) sucrose and 0.1% (wt/vol) tryptone (ST medium) or 0.2% (wt/vol) glucose and 0.2% (wt/vol) tryptone (GT medium) prior to UV exposure.
Hematology Laboratory Questions Q1. Labelled diagrams and description of function of each cell type: - Neutrophil: Neutrophils are granulocytes –white blood cells - produced by the bone marrow. There are about 1.3 x 1011 neutrophils per 80-kg person per day produced by hematopoietic system.
Current scientific advancements (further discussed below) allows an individual to determine whether they came from the lineage of Bible figures Moses and Aaron, or of Genghis Khan, US President Jefferson, and other historical figures (www.rootsforreal.com).
The fat globules do not mix with the stomach fluids. The fat globules are not digested in the stomach and they move into the small intestine. The floating immiscible fat molecules are digested with the help of the emulsifier bile. Bile is an amphiphilic molecule.
So, as the science of stem cells rapidly generates new discoveries, it also encourages a serious debate among scientists, human rights activists, as well as ordinary people about the validity of approving the experiments on stem cells for addressing many scientific issues.
HPV’s association with other cancers such as oral, esophageal nasopharyngeal and larngyeal, and with some researches claiming evidences of its HPV etiology, the possibility of using HPV vaccines against breast cancer looked promising. However, as studies on the matter are further being conducted, they begin to arrive at conflicting conclusions.
Name Surname Professor Name Subject 9 December 2011 Biology Introduction: The present study focuses on five topics related to biology that are Central Jersey Blood Center, HIV and AIDS, St. Francis Counseling Center on Abusive Relationships, Family Planning Services and Features, and Planned Parenthood Services and Features.
As the discussion stresses placenta has two components a fetal part that develops from the chorionic sac (chorionic villi) and a maternal part that develops from the endometrium. Development of placenta begins after the cleavage of zygote, which consists of repeated mitotic divisions and the ultimate formation of a blastocyst.
Antibiotics are normally used in the treatment of infectious diseases. This paper analyses the classification, transmission, prevention, diagnosis and therapy of infectious diseases, the history, types and effectiveness of vaccines and the functioning of vaccines in human body.
Sex chromosomes are those that determine the gender of individuals to be either male or female. The sex chromosomes face several disorders that arise from the deletion or addition of the sex chromosomes; X and Y. chromosomes are made up of long strands of the genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA that contains several genes that are responsible for the various traits in human beings (Gardner, Sutherland and Shaffer 123).
1. Describe the short and long term effects that a myocardial infarction has on the structure and function of the heart. Myocardial infraction is the term given to the interruption of blood supply and thereby oxygen supply to a part of the heart, which results in the breakdown of the heart muscles there.
The cell theory encompasses three basic theories. Firstly, "all living things are made of cells". Secondly, a single cell is the smallest unit of life as it is the smallest living thing that performs all life functions.
Global warming was not a part of the earth and its system; it is a cause of the carelessness of the people of the earth. Any problem caused by human beings has a definite solution and the solution is with the human beings themselves. Global warming is also a cause of the human activities and humans need to realize it to remove it forever (ThinkQuest, n.d.).
Meiosis also known as reduction division is a type of cell division where the cells divide to produce cells containing half the number of chromosomes. This type of cell division constitutes a very important part of sexual reproduction and all eukaryotes reproducing sexually have meiosis as a part of cell division. However, the prokaryotes i.e. the bacteria do not reproduce by meiosis.
The researchers have successfully managed to come up with various conclusions especially concerning the genes that are attacked to induce the condition. The genes that are actively involved in cancer progress bring a clear understanding in a biological context.