quora
Nobody downloaded yet

Reproduction problems - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Reproduction problems Case 1 The patient has a deficiency in the enzyme 21B hydroxylase which is responsible for the biosynthesis of corticosteroids which include cortisol and aldosterone. The enzyme is found in the gene CYP21A2…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.1% of users find it useful
Reproduction problems
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Reproduction problems"

Download file to see previous pages In the case of this patient the deficiency of 21 Hydroxylase led to the over production of androgen in the adrenal gland, which caused virilence in the patient. The exact pathophysiology of this disease will be explained in detail in the following section. 21Hydroxylase is specifically located in the endoplasmic reticulum of the zona fasciculate of the adrenal gland. It main function is the catalysis of 17 hydroxyprogesterone to a compound known as 11 deoxycortisol utilizing the glucocorticoid mechanism (Nieschlang et al., 42-55).The pathway begins with pregnenolone and ends with cortisol. It also acts as a catalyst in the pathway of progesterone to 11 deoxycortisteronne. Therefore, the deficiency of this enzyme affects both the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid pathways. The alsom leads to the hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and elevates the level of ACTH (Nieschlang et al., 42-55). Since the catalytic step of the reactions is inhibited, there is an accumulation of 17 hydroxypregnenolone and progesterone in the adrenal cortex. The level of 17 hydroxypregnenolone is elevated by approximately 500 times. 17 hydroxypregnenolone is utilized in the synthesis of androstenedione, DHEA and testosterone therefore excessive accumulation of this steroid hormone has led to the ambiguous external genitalia. The ovaries inside the patient are normal and the fallopian tubes, uterus and upper vagina are also normal due to the fact that they are not exposed to testicular antimullerian hormone. The elevated levels of testosterone lead to the enlargement of phallus. The patient has stage 1 virilization due to the significantly enlarged clitoris (Nieschlang et al., 42-55). The therapeutic approach towards congenital 21 hydroxylase deficiency is complicated and requires long term care and management. The patient should be admitted to the pediatric endocrine clinic. The management approaches require the following issues to be addressed and these include stress coverage, parental education and crisis prevention, monitoring and initiating hormonal replacement, optimizing the growth of the patient, reconstructive surgery of the external genetalia and optimizing the suppression of androgens and the future fertility of these infants. The hormonal replacement in newborns with CAH is to protect them from developing insufficiency of the adrenal gland and to also stomp the enhanced production of androgens. The hormonal replacement involves the administration of glucocorticoids which act as a substitute of cortisol thereby reducing the excessive amount of ACTH production. The parents of the child should also be educated on the nature of treatment as the administration of glucocorticoids is independent of the health condition of the patient and stopping administration may lead to death by adrenal crisis. The doses should never be missed. Case 2 The patient had 5 alpha reductase deficiency which is an autosomal recessive intersex disorder which occurs as a result of genetic mutation. This leads to the deficiency in the 5 alpha reductase type II gene (Costanzo, 10-20).The reactions that are catalyzed by 5 alpha reductase deficiency lead to the production of testosterone, therefore this process is inhibited. This enzyme is also responsible for the conversion of testosterone to DHT. The enzyme is expressed in the external genitalia in the early gestational period and is an important influence on the physiological development of male external ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Reproduction problems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Reproduction problems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1494602-reproduction-problems
(Reproduction Problems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
Reproduction Problems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words. https://studentshare.org/biology/1494602-reproduction-problems.
“Reproduction Problems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1494602-reproduction-problems.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Ethical Issues of Assisted Reproduction
Among the ethical issues of surrogacy is the exploitation of the poor who donate sperms and eggs for surrogate parents who have the wherewithal to have test tube babies and to determine the genetic make-up of these babies. The issue of premature babies has also been dodged by ethical questions on the need to save a life that would be marred suffering, illnesses, and handicaps.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Statistics of Abortion
Abortion Abortion is a routine medical procedure that is carried on an extensive scale every year in the United States. The number of reported cases of abortion is continuously increasing with a lot of cases being unreported because of family issues or other legal matters.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Ethics, Genetics and Reproduction Philosophy
The entire gamut of the Western Civilization has always been very complicated in the sense that there never existed a unanimously and universally authenticated code of conduct that was considered perpetually sufficient to adjudicate the socially and ethically relevant issues.
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
REPRODUCTION
When a woman is pregnant, it illustrates a new life growing inside her womb thus; she bears ethical obligations to the fetus. This serves to limit pregnancy termination as a viable option by
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Reproduction
Mammalian studies suggest that “neurohypophysical oxytocin plays a role in the expulsive phase” (Blanks & Thornton, 2003) and also initiates parturition. All throughout pregnancy, progesterone plays an important role in sustaining it; however at the end of
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Reproduction Issue
Supreme Court handed over the resolutions about second-trimester abortion to states’ judgment and firmly denounced third-trimester or late term abortions (Farrell,
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
The health effects of cannabis marijuana
Marijuana damages respiratory apparatus and causes breathing problems. Over decades of research, it has been determined that the consumption of marijuana results in variable forms of lung diseases. This is primarily because of
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Reproduction Of Poetry
These and other characteristics of poetry make it qualify as an art form. There are other different art forms today, including painting and photography, among others. Art is faced with a myriad of
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Reproduction
The paper will focus on the process of spermatogenesis in the male’s testis as well as oogenesis in the female. The process of spermatogenesis is a complex thing that takes place in the male. The male reproductive system comprises of a
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Cellular Reproduction
Based on your data and observations, what are some of the differences between normal cells and cancer cells? Cancer cells are known to display an uncontrolled and abnormal cell division, moreover the cells formed as a result of cell division exhibit characteristics that are weird as they have incredibly large or quite small nuclei or they possess anomalous quantity of chromosomes.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Reproduction problems for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us