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Disease - Essay Example

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Drivers of emergence of viral diseases in humans Student Introduction The past few decades have witnessed an increased interest in the upsurge in the number of viruses causing unanticipated sicknesses and spates among people, livestock and wildlife…
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Download file to see previous pages The primary meaning is that these are representative of continually surfacing contagions reacting to speedy changes in the association between host and the pathogens. Current literature has identified that there are almost 1, 400 species of human pathogens. Almost 60 percent of these pathogens are zoonotic. This implies that almost 60 percent of the pathogens are infections that are transmitted between humans and vertebrates. In reference to Woolhouse et al (2012), emerging and re-emerging pathogens are most probable to be zoonotic. Viruses form a majority of this group. In addition, viruses with RNA sequences constitutes a third of all emerging and re-emerging contagions. Emergent pathogens are characteristically those with a wide host variety ranging across numerous mammalian animals. In the contemporary world, in spite of the exceptional progresses towards development of steps to counter the development of the infectious illnesses, the increased global mutuality, increased world travel and climate change have contributed deposits of complication to controlling and containing these contagious diseases that not only have an impact on an individual’s health but also a nation’s economy. ...
Remarkably, most of the illnesses originate from animals such as rodents and bats, as shown by the presence of Nipah virus encephalitis, lassa fever and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Howard & Fletcher, 2012). Current interest in emerging contagions has centered on three primary fields. First, it has centered on how the interaction of the environment, human societal pressures and climate can cause unanticipated outbursts of emergent illnesses. Second, it has centered on the apprehension on how viruses can be transmitted from a reservoir to a host, and thirdly on recognizing the elements of the illness process that present opportunities for treatment and prevention. Drivers of Emerging Viral Diseases in Humans i. Animals that act as reservoirs of Human diseases Many emerging illnesses arise when transferable agents in animals are passed to people. The advent of agriculture 10, 000 years ago was one of the primary factors that contributed to the rise of majority of the infections in the present world. Agricultural activities drove people near wild animals and livestock. Notably, people put establishments in these regions (Lashley $ Durham, 2007). This offered a fertile ground for the transmission of infections from the animals to humans. Among the mammalian species, members that make up Muridae family have been the natural hosts of Hantaviruses and arenaviruses. The mamals reproduce faster and increase the population’s exposure and risk to the pathogens. Additionally, domestic livestock have also contributed to the spread and emergence of virus infections. For instance, pigs have been associated with numerous outbursts of emerging infections. A total number of 265 cases of viral infections ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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