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Cancer - Essay Example

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CHARLES DARWIN BIOL 102, LAB SECTION 8 THE BIOLOGY OF THYROID CANCER Description Thyroid cancer is a disease condition of abnormal cells growth of thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is a butter-fly shaped gland located on the front segment of neck at the bottom of the throat…
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Download file to see previous pages Thyroid hormones are essential for the regulation of blood pressure, heart rate, metabolism and temperature of body, influences nervous system, muscular system and other systems as well. Regulation of the hormone produced by this gland may result in hyperthyroidism (Graves' Disease) or hypothyroidism. Thyroid cancer is considered as an uncommon type of cancer. Thyroid cancer is categorized into four groups encompassing papillary, medullary, follicular and anaplastic thyroid cancers. Lumps or masses grow in thyroid which are benign in ninety-five percent of cases. There is always a propensity that they may spread to other body parts if remain untreated (Web. "Thyroid Cancer", n.d.). Epidemiology The American Cancer Society reveals that around 17,200 cases of thyroid cancer appear each year, this number contributes to 1 percent of all the cancer cases prevalent in United States. Women are considered to be three times more prone to display the symptoms of thyroid cancer as compared to men. Problems related to thyroid hormone is common in teenagers, adolescents and younger individuals, but thyroid cancer is known to develop at the age of over 50 years (Web. "Thyroid Cancer", n.d.). Worldwide estimations reveal that more than 862,000 individuals diagnosed with thyroid cancer in 2003 were alive in 2008 (Web."Thyroid cancer incidence statistics", n.d.). Genetic-associated risk factors: chromosome(s)/gene(s) involved Genes are responsible for the metabolism of the organism, they control the functions of the cells. Cancers initially progress from the normal cells and gradually gain the potential to multiply unusually and ultimately become malignant. These malignant cells proliferate clonally and form tumors which in due course impend to turn metastatic. Cancer, also known as malignant neoplasm, the hallmark characteristic involves uncontrolled proliferation of cells. Under normal conditions cell grow, divide and die, but in cancer cells the defect takes place at the gene level leading to the formation of an abnormal DNA. As genes are the basic control machine of the cell, alteration of any kind may bring devastating consequences, or malignancy. Autosomal dominance inheritance of mutated gene (only single cope) could lead to thyroid cancer, although its prevalence is only 1 percent. The inheritance of defective gene could be estimated with genetic testing. Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) contributes to 5 percent of thyroid cancers. Genetic conditions playing role in inheritance of MTC are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2A, 2B as well as familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). On the other hand, papillary and follicular thyroid cancers contribute to 90 percent of all thyroid cancers (Web. "The Genetics of Thyroid Cancer", 2011). Risk factors other than genetics Risk factors enhances the chance of developing cancer. In most of the cases, thyroid cancers are sporadic. About 10 percent of the thyroid cancers are inherited (5 percent papillary, and follicular, while 25 percent MTC). Other risk factors involve gender (women are more prone), age (2/3 of the cases are reported between 20 and 55 years), while anaplastic thyroid cancer is reported after 60 years of age. Radiation exposure (X-ray treatment to treat tonsillitis), exposure to radioactive iodine in childhood days enhance the chances of papillary and follicular thyroid cancers. Low iodine in diet may also cause thyroid cancer (Web. "Thyroid Cancer- Risk Factors", 2013). Symptoms Typical ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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