The majority of cancer in the head and neck is derived from squamous cell carcinoma. Locations of carcinogenesis include areas of the mouth, larynx and pharynx. Excessive abuse of alcohol and tobacco is often cited as the causative agent of cancer in the head and neck. The disorder occurs more often in males than females…
Download file to see previous pages...
Head and neck cancer often occurs in individuals older than 45 years. There is also an association of papilloma virus and development of cancer of the head and neck. Cancer often results from exposure to the virus as a consequence of oral-vaginal or oral-anal sex, and there is a correlation between head and neck cancer and sex with more than one person.
Conventional treatment of head and neck cancer has utilized radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery. There is a pronounced increase in fatality associated with the development of secondary tumors. Surgery on head and neck cancer often results in mutilation of the soft tissue, and many times the vocal apparatus must be removed. There has been an increase in the development of head and neck cancer in young people, and this is thought to be attributed to environmental factors including air pollution and other environmental toxins. There is also a rise in head and neck cancer in certain races of people, most pronounced in individuals of Asian origin and people in Eastern Europe. Causative agents of head and neck cancer other than alcohol and tobacco raise concern for the monitoring of environmental parameters associated with the development of disease. ...
he complex organs and structures of the head and neck often complicate surgery to remove tumors, and surgery can result in the loss of speech and the utilization of alternative airway pathways. Examination of the molecular makeup of different tumors in the head and neck has indicated that these cancers are often times distinct in origin and therefore require unique treatment. The development of Papilloma virus associated cancer in the cervix requires rupture of the outer skin layer and deposition of the virus in the interior layer of the skin. This is not the case in the mouth and digestive tract. The mucosal layer of these regions is more porous and disruption of the epithelial layer is not required for adherence and establishment of infection. Many times the presentation of even small tumors is represented as aggressive metastasis by papilloma virus in the interior layers of the mouth and digestive tract (Verkmorken, 2005). Causes of head and neck cancer: molecular biology The majority of head and neck cancer is associated with the inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Human papilloma virus also plays a role in the development of head and neck cancer and often initiates tumorigenesis through the inactivation of p53. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) also acts in initiation of head and neck cancer. Another molecular factor in development of tumors is activation of telomerase, the enzyme which extends the length of telomeres and provides for the immortalization of cancer cells. Tumors larger in size than a few millimeters must also establish blood flow to the neoplasia, and therefore vascularization of the tumor area is required. Many new tumors in the head and neck are initiated with a “white patch” at the origin of neoplasia. This whitening is associated
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
(“The relationship between SC35 and E2F1 in the apoptotic response of Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved de https://studentshare.org/health-sciences-medicine/1390752-the-relationship-between
(The Relationship Between SC35 and E2F1 in the Apoptotic Response of Essay)
“The Relationship Between SC35 and E2F1 in the Apoptotic Response of Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/health-sciences-medicine/1390752-the-relationship-between.
Hence, the term foreign exchange rate refers to ‘price of one currency expressed in terms of other country’s currency’ (Mano, 2010). For instance, the exchange rate between dollar and euro is 0.734 euro /dollar, which means a person can buy 0.734 Euros for every dollar.
Poverty levels are highly connected to obesity because of low-income levels; thus exposing the society to health risks. The research study indicated that people living in the poverty dense areas are prone to obesity. This is because they lack enough food; thus develop poor eating habits; hence resulting to increased obesity.
Clark and his co-authors have classified the common predictors of adolescent drug and alcohol use into environmental risks, phenotypic risks and heritable factors (Clark et al., 2010). These three broad factors have different relations among themselves. This paper primarily focuses on identifying and describing family-related, peer-related and individual characteristics that have been shown to correlate with drug and alcohol abuse of the adolescent.
Only a smaller number of cancers are caused by germline mutations, whereas the rest 90%, are related to somatic mutations and environmental factors (Sung et al, 2011). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), earlier reports on the effect of diet on cancer have specified that cancer rates might rise by 50% up to 15 million new cases by 2020 worldwide.
Thyroid gland possesses two lobes, left and right. Thyroid gland is an endocrine gland that produces hormone called as thyroid hormone, utilizing iodine in the process of synthesis. Thyroid hormone is known to regulate body metabolism and therefore plays a crucial role in the development process.
It severely affects human body due to uncontrollable division of damaged cells forming tissues that are recognised as tumours. Cancer patients are provided with different types of treatments such as radiation, hormone therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, gene therapy and immunotherapy (MNT, 2013).
Breast cancer also is the most common cause of cancer death in females, e.g. the age-standardised rate of mortality from breast cancer was 30.1 per 100,000 of population in 2002 (NS, 2004) Consequently all studies dedicated to the problem of the prevention and control of breast cancer have the highest importance and can be considered as one of the priorities of the national health care system.
In the field of diagnosis several procedures of FNA were innovated in pursue of accuracy, but none of them, except ThinPrep was proved to be qualified enough to be competent with the conventional one. The points of accuracy of FNA are
There is a causal relationship between the proximity of the nuclear power plants and the number of cancer patients (Murray, 2008).
The Chernobyl explosion polluted the milk and other food products in Ukraine, the place where the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded.