Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Molecular Targets and Drug Design: Apoptosis - Essay Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
Apoptosis also defined as programmed cell death or physiological cell death that occurs as a result of a deliberate activation of the constituent genes, whose main function is to cause its own death. It is a series of Biochemical events lead to change in the cell morphology followed by cell death. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.4% of users find it useful
Molecular Targets and Drug Design: Apoptosis
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Molecular Targets and Drug Design: Apoptosis"

Download file to see previous pages It is a series of Biochemical events lead to change in the cell morphology followed by cell death. Characteristically these morphological changes includes, the aggregation of chromatin together with cytoplasm and nuclear condensation into a distinct membrane bound vesicles which are known as Apoptotic Bodies, there is chromosomal DNA fragmentation, shrinkage of cell and cell blebbing (which are intact membrane vesicles). There is no inflammatory response, the cellular blebs and remains are quickly phagocytysed by the macrophages and the adjacent cells. (Kumar and Clark, 2005). In an average adult human about 50-70 billion cells die in one day in various tissues like intestines and bone marrow, while approximately 20-30 billion cells die each day in an average child of about 8-14 years. These dead cells are replaced by the new ones. There are 100 trillions cells in our body which are members of a highly organized community which efficiently controls both the cell division and cell death. In simple when a cell is no longer of any use or it become a threat to the body then it undergoes a suicidal programmed cell death mechanism called apoptosis. (Hall and Guyton, 2006). German scientist named Carl Vogt in the year 1842 was the first one to define the main principle of apoptosis. Research about apoptosis has increased greatly since early 1990’s. If apoptosis occurs in excess it results into atrophy while if it is taking place insufficiently then it causes an uncontrollable cell proliferation resulting in cancer. In contrast to Necrosis (traumatic cell death) where the cell swells up due to injury resulting it to burst and spills its contents, resulting in inflammation and injury to an adjacent cells. The process of apoptosis involves a particular proteolytic cascade that causes the cell to shrink become condense, loose its cytoskeleton , alters the cell surface in order for the neighboring phagocyte cells such as macrophage to attach itself to the cell membrane and engulf the cell before the contents spills, thus leaving the adjacent cells healthy.(Hall and Guyton, 2006 ). The process of apoptosis needs energy in the form of Adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) and many Ca+2 and Mg +2 dependant nuclear system are activated which specifically splits the nuclear DNA at inter-histone residues. The endonuclease destroys the DNA following the apoptosis This process involves an enzyme called as CASPASE ( Cysteine-containing Aspartase- Specific Protease) this enzyme is synthesized within cell and stored in it in the form of pro-Caspases, this enzyme once activated result in the cascade of break down of proteins within the cell. Caspase in turn activates the CAD (Caspase DNase) / ICAD( inhibitor of CAD) system that can cause DNA destruction.(Kumar and Clark, 2005) The cells then detach it self and its remains are rapidly eaten up by the adjacent phagocytic cells. There are two main signaling pathways that starts the process of apoptosis :Extrinsic pathway, that is initiated by the death receptors on the surface of cell, these signals include toxins, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and nitric oxide, they either cross the plasma membrane or transduce in order to produce a response. These signals may either trigger or repress the apoptosis. While the Intrinsic pathways initiates at the mitochondrial level. The cell starts intracellular pathway in response to the following trigger’s , stress that may result in cell suicide, binding of the nuclear receptors by glucocorticoids, nutrition deprivation, viral infection, heat, radiation, hypoxia and increased level of intracellular calcium. The Extrinsic Pathway helps in the process of tissue remodeling and to induce immune self tolerance. Now the activated receptors containing internal death ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Molecular Targets and Drug Design: Apoptosis Essay”, n.d.)
Molecular Targets and Drug Design: Apoptosis Essay. Retrieved from
(Molecular Targets and Drug Design: Apoptosis Essay)
Molecular Targets and Drug Design: Apoptosis Essay.
“Molecular Targets and Drug Design: Apoptosis Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
bodelaisha added comment 1 year ago
Student rated this paper as
The topic of "Molecular Targets and Drug Design: Apoptosis" was impossible to find. I spent hours to find it. Here at StudentShare, I got the most decent example. Many thanks!

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Molecular Targets and Drug Design: Apoptosis

Chemotherapy and drug drug design

...? Chemotherapy and drug design Chemotherapy and drug design Chemotherapy and drug design The role of iron in the body and its homeostasis. The trace element or micronutrient iron plays a major role in some important functions in the body. Iron is a part of several macromolecules in the human body involved with production of energy by the formation of adenosine triphosphate molecules, ribonucleoside reductase activity in DNA synthesis and xenobiotic metabolism (He et al, 2007; MacKenzie et al, 2007). The macromolecules consist of hemoglobin, cytochromes, oxygenases, flavoproteins, and redoxins. This makes iron a significant part of the...
16 Pages(4000 words)Dissertation

Intermediate targets

...?Running Head: Intermediate Targets Intermediate Targets [Institute’s Intermediate Targets Unlike direct targets, which are in direct control of the Federal Reserve, intermediate targets are the ones, which are not in immediate control of the Fed but policy actions that the Fed takes, are likely to have profound and at times, calculated effect on those factors. Their predictability and responsiveness to the policy changes by Fed creates an environment where the Fed would actively use direct targets such as interest rates and monetary growth to influence intermediate targets and bring them in line with the economic goals....
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay


...which enable the regulatory proteins to instigate the pathway of apoptosis. Mitochondrial regulation Mitochondria are important and crucial factor linked with the multi cellular life because in its absence the cell is ceased and thus it will not be able to respire aerobically and it will quickly die. This is the major cause of the apoptotic pathways. Mitochondria is targeted by the apoptotic proteins in various ways which can cause the swelling of mitochondria which causes the formation of the membrane pores and they also increase the mitochondrial membrane permeability and it can also be a major reason of leaking out of the apoptotic factors. Apoptosis is activated through the nitric...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper

Molecular Recognition and Drug Design

...Molecular recognition and drug design Molecular recognition is the one of the most important factors influences every aspect of life starting from DNA replication and gene expression to Protein folding and enzyme action (Kapetanovic, 2006). Any molecules or compound which interferes in these recognition processes leads to development of drug. Absolute specificity leads to less side effects and more effectivity. Understanding the physico-chemical basis of drug-target interaction is the challenging task for any drug development program. affinity of new drug molecule towards...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Chemotherapy and drug design

...Chemotherapy and drug design Introduction Iron is the most common micronutrient in many organisms and serves in many vital functions in the body. It occurs in very small quantities in the human body and even lesser amounts are used by it. On average, an adult has almost 4 grams of iron. The distinctive feature of iron from other minerals and elements in the human body is that, there is no formal way of excretion of excess iron from the body. Although it occurs in small quantities in the human body, it plays critical roles in our health. It has to be in the right quantity in the human body, because its increase or decrease can cause serious health implications (Ferreira, Moura and Franco, 1999). In...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay


...2nd October Problems for Chapter 3 C.3.6 Dice Suppose that you roll three fair dice. What is the probability of getting a five on at least one of the dice? Total outcomes in a dice {1 2 3 4 5 6} Probability of getting a five on one dice {event X) = 3 No. of possible outcomes in one dice = 3{1 2 3 4 5 6} = 18 P (X) = = In 3 dices the probability of getting at least a 5 = 3/18 = 1/6 C. Forensic DNA testing DNA found at a crime scene can be compared with DNA from suspected criminal to estimate the likelihood that both samples came from the same person. An enzyme is used to cut each DNA into short fragments; the enzyme always cuts at the same DNA sequence, and the positions of such sequences differ among individuals... October...
5 Pages(1250 words)Speech or Presentation

Molecular Biology and Molecular Diagnostics

...Molecular Biology and Molecular Diagnostics Introduction The popularity of Health tips magazines is on the rise. The magazines are increasingly being appreciated because of their role of providing useful health information on various topics (Allison, 2009, p. 45). What is more, the magazines offer information on the most recent advances in molecular biology research, the most effective health practices, and beauty tips for (aging) women. Health tips magazines also address emotional, mental, fitness-related, dietary, and physical environment issues. The main topics discussed in health magazines include disease management, fitness, beauty, diet, well being, and nutritional implications....
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Targets of Anti-metastatic Drug Development

...for the anti-metastatic drugs development and the progress that has been made, so far, in developing effective drugs. Tumour-intrinsic molecular metastasis determinants It is clear that driving oncogenic mutations are necessary for metastasis. A number of the oncogenic mutations so far identified affect cell fate regulation, genomic maintenance and cell survival (Glinsky and Raz, 2010, p. 1788). . These initiating and resultant progression events may also turn out indispensable for metastases establishment at a secondary site. Patient analysis has shown that agents targeting oncogenic mutations or amplifications, such as mutant BRAF in melanoma, amplified HER2 in...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Drug Patch Design

...Drug Patch Design Introduction Kinetosis which is more widelyknown as motion sickness is a medical nuisance which has stumbled NASA. Many of the agencies astronauts suffer from the problem of motion sickness which prevents them from working efficiently while in space and leads to loss of extremely valuable time. NASA officials have tried a number of remedies and finally settled on trying a drug patch test that has Scopalamine which works well in controlling motion sickness thereby allowing the astronauts to keep a sense of direction and work. SCOPOLAMINE I was assigned the mammoth task of designing a patch test. The patch I shall design would work for...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Drug Patch Design

... DRUG PATCH TEST INTRODUCTION Many people face the problem of motion sickness which induces nausea and vomiting however this mild physical problem is of great concern when it affects astronauts when in space. NASA therefore has wanted to come up with a patch design which would contain the drug called Scopolamine and which when worn would help prevent motion sickness and thereby help the astronauts to perform their duties efficiently and without any problem and in this way save precious time while in space.The drug has proved to be efficient in controlling motion sickness (Nachum et al, 2006, p543). NASA approached me to design this patch. The design I came up with in my mind was of a patch that could be worn by all astronauts... and which...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Molecular Targets and Drug Design: Apoptosis for FREE!

Contact Us