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This was developed following discovery of cisplatin in an attempt to reduce the problematic side effects of cisplatin. This is administered intravenously, and till date, no commercially viable orally active agent has been reported to be accepted for therapy3,4. Like cisplatin, oxaliplatin is also associated with quite a few dose-limiting adverse effects, which include myelosuppression along with others5. These are neurotoxic side effects that include sensory peripheral neuropathy which can be dose limiting. The other side effects include gastrointestinal disturbances and ototoxicity, while renal function may be normally monitored during therapy6. In this assignment contemporary literature will be reviewed to address the effects of oxaliplatin genotoxicity on human lymphocytes by using various cytogenetic techniques.
Oxaliplatin contains a cyclohexyl and a pentadilactone ring, which will be evident from its chemical structure in a later section7. This has been approved for treatment of metastatic colon cancer in combination with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid8. Therefore, this is a diaminocyclohexane (DACH) platinum compound9. This was considered as a probable chemotherapeutic agent since it demonstrated preclinical activities in some cisplatin-resistant cell lines and xenografts10. Oxaliplatin is an important member of this DACH platinum group of compounds. Its preclinical activity against colorectal cancer has been studied in great detail. It has been suggested that oxaliplatin has a greater extent of cell kill in resistant cancers since therapy with this agent may result in greater resistance to repair mechanisms leading to affected recovery of cancer cells11. This has been attributed to the size of the DACH carrier ligands, resulting into a bulkier platinum-DNA adduct in comparison to that created by cisplatin12.
The inhibitory effects of platinum compounds have been ascribed to formation of inorganic platinum compounds in presence
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The author tries to establish different classifications of personality, relate the differences arrived at to foretell differences in others and examine the dynamics of such differences in personality. Self- assessment tests involve administration of a series of questions to individuals and rating their responses.
Some of the exogenous agents capable of causing DNA damage are ultraviolet rays and ionising radiation, environmental toxins, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals, and chemicals used in chemotherapy of cancers. The types of DNA damage caused include covalent modification of the four bases (A, T, G and C) in DNA, single- and double-stranded breaks in the DNA backbone, mismatch of base pairing occurring during DNA replication, and intrastrand and interstrand crosslink formation between DNA bases.
Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of cell death which is under genetic control. It is also well recognized that apoptosis and the genes that control it have a strong effect on the malignant phenotype. The genes found mutated most frequently in colon cancer are adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), deleted in colon cancer (DCC), K-Ras, and p53 (Bhatnagar et al., 2009).
The polyphenols in tea are known to have antioxidant properties which can quench free radical species, and also pro-oxidant activities that appear to be responsible for the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. The bioavailability of these natural compounds is an important factor that determines their efficacy.
This knowledge has paved the way for the continuing development of drug therapy for cancer. Colon cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies in the world (Zhang et al., 2009). The annual incidence of this type of cancer is around 1.0 million, and every year approximately 500,000 people are estimated to die on account of colon cancer worldwide (Keighley, 2003; Weir et al., 2003).
This pathway plays a major role in embryonic development by deciding the fate of binary cells. 'Notch' is named after the notched wing phenotype of mutant Drosophila. Other important functions of the pathway include cell proliferation, regulation of boundary formation between various cell populations and cell death.
that the key target of oxaliplatin at the molecular level may be survivin through which oxaliplatin may induce several modes of cell death in cancer cells, since survivin promoted activity is inhibited by oxaliplatin. In some cell lines, oxaliplatin also induces down-regulation
3 & 4 correspondingly. The long circulate property of the micelles is not compromised even by the soaring drug loading amount (39% w/w). The surface properties and size were the main factors of the bio-distribution of the micelles. In situations where the drug
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