Nobody downloaded yet

Typhoid fever in children - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Typhoid Fever in Children by (Professor) (University) 1.0 DEFINITION Typhoid fever is defined as “a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serotype typhi (S typhi)” (Bahn et al., 2005). Typhoid fever is known to have a fatality damage of 216,500 deaths worldwide in the year 2000, and 21,600,000 illnesses in that year alone (Bhan et al., 2005)…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.9% of users find it useful
Typhoid fever in children
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Typhoid fever in children"

Download file to see previous pages Moreover, typhoid fever usually hits children and young adults aged 5-19 years, although the age range can be much younger to much older (Bhan et al., 2005). Paratyphoid fever, which is a related disease, accounts for 5.4 million sick people worldwide (Crump & Mintz, 2010). Thus, one can see the severity of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever and the fatalities that they bring. Unless, therefore, there are measures to prevent typhoid fever, there is no way that the situation can be improved. 2.0 HISTORY The Salmonella enteric bacterium has evolved beginning 50,000 years ago and has been known for its “remarkable mechanisms for persistence” in the human host (Bahn et al., 2005). By the early 20th century in Europe and the United States, the disease has greatly declined because of the improvement in the water supply as well as in the sewage systems. Nevertheless, the disease remained a serious health concern for the public. It was the introduction of chloramphenicol treatment that somehow made typhoid fever a manageable infection and not anymore a fatal disease. Nevertheless, in 1972, some chloramphenicol-resistant typhoid fever emerged. This was then countered with new antibiotics – ampicillin, amoxicillin and co-trimoxazole. In the 1980s and the 1990s, some new resistant strains once more emerged and this time they are resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin and co-trimoxazole. The current treatment is now third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, although there have also been reported decrease in susceptibility (Bahn et al. 2005). 3.0 SALMONELLA ENTERICA, DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TYPHOID, NON TYPHOID SALMONELLAE AND S. PARATYPHI IN TERMS OF GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION Typhoid salmonellae involve the invasion of the gut mucosa located in the terminal ileum either through the M-cells that serve as the epithelium of all gut tissue or through the enterocytes. Through the epithelial receptor called cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein, the typhoid Salmonellae adhere to the intestinal mucosa in the terminal ileum. On the other hand, non-typhoidal Salmonella leads to the invasion of the non-phagocytic epithelial cells and eventually the peripheral blood leucocytes and the lamina propia. The non-typhoidal Salmonellae then reach the intestinal lymphoid tissue, the mesenteric nodes, the thoracic duct until it causes bacteremia that infects the vital organs of the body within 24 hours. The affected parts could be the spleen, the liver, the bone marrow, as well as other parts of the reticuloendothelial system (Bhan et al., 2005). Typhoid fever is found in India, Indonesia and Vietnam, as well as in Bangladesh and Nepal. Paratyphoid fever, which is less prevalent than typhoid, occurs in India and Nepal (Bhan et al., 2005). 4.0 HOW DOES THE BACTERIA CAUSE A DISEASE? S. typhi causes the disease through the invasion of the gut mucosa in the terminal ileum. Then it enters the mucosa through the M-cells or through the enterocytes (Bhan et al., 2005). As the mucosal barrier is overcome, what follows is bacteremia. Then there is exudative inflammation in the terminal ileum and colon, thus causing diarrhea. What further takes place is interstitial inflammation and decrease ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Typhoid fever in children Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1493967-typhoid-fever-in-children
(Typhoid Fever in Children Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words)
“Typhoid Fever in Children Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1493967-typhoid-fever-in-children.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
There has been an estimated 530,000 cases and 7000 deaths already. SOURCES OF INFO IN THE SUMMARY: NGO Partners In Health (PIH) and GHESKIO proposed vaccination as an effective approach
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that children who grow up on traditional farms are protected from asthma, hay fever and allergic sensitization. Present and discuss the evidence supporting this hypothesis
Along with exposure to microbes, consumption of raw milk, which contains whey proteins, also contribute to immunity in children. The aim of the present study is to discuss the evidences supporting the hypothesis that the children
18 Pages(4500 words)Essay
Yellow Fever
Yellow fever is caused by the flavivirus (PHAC 2010) and is from the family flaviviridae (Robertson 1993). It gets the term yellow by causing yellowing of the eyes and skin related to liver damage (PHAC 2010, WHO 2011). It is a small virus that contains single-stranded RNA encapsulated by a lipid membrane (Robertson 1993) and can be rendered inactive by “lipid solvents (ether, chloroform), heat (56 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes), and ultraviolet light” (Robertson 1993, p 1, ¶ 3).
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Dengue Fever in India
As controversial as it begins, the story ends in controversy where the government of India acknowledges the discrepancies in reporting dengue cases, but at the same time insists that it cannot be 300 times. This story comes at a moment when the world is grappling with the Ebola outbreak, and since dengue is another epidemic, the article is timely with the current events.
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
The Roman Fever
It was simple as it revolved around the story of two middle-aged women - friends who grew up together in America who are on a vacation in Rome. It was ingenious because the simple plot was able to cover the complex themes such as jealousy, betrayal, power struggles and depictions of female relationships in America, among others.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Hay Fever and Eczema
A study was conducted to investigate whether changes in certain prenatal and social factors increased the prevalence of hay fever and eczema among British adolescents between 1958 and 1970.
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay
Epidemiology eassy on Yellow Fever
Vector-control strategies that were once successful for elimination of yellow fever from many regions have faltered, leading to reemergence of the disease. Consequently, immunization is now the most important method of prevention of yellow fever, supplemented with prevention of mosquito bites (Barnett 2007, p.850-6).
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
Roman Fever by Edith Wharton
Thesis "Roman Fever" depicts that role of women in the society are limited by public opinion and traditions which force women to loose their moral values and human dignity in order to gain recognition and high social appraisal. In the story, Edith Wharton criticizes the institute of marriage and the role of women as wives.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Management of uncomplicated fever in children
The problem is that different nurses manage uncomplicated fever in a child in different ways. Some were administering paracetamol every 4 hours, while others were just observing the child and giving paracetamol as and when required. 30% of emergency department visits constitutes children. In most of them, the cause is usually a self limiting viral infection.
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Can be on anything to do with microbiology (you can chose the topic)
Estimates have indicated that approximately 6,00,000 deaths world wide are attributable to typhoid. Most of these occur in developing countries. More often than not, the diagnosis of typhoid is made on clinical grounds and presumptive management is initiated leading to delayed diagnosis, emergence of drug resistance and missing of other clinical diagnosis that is mistaken for typhoid fever.
2 Pages(500 words)Article
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Typhoid fever in children for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us