Free

Assignment Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
They act as biological catalysts. Reactions taking place in the cell become a million times faster when an enzyme is involved. The enzyme is specific for a…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.5% of users find it useful
Assignment
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample ""

Biology Assignment Biology Assignment What are the functions of enzymes and discuss how they perform their functions? The main function of enzymes is to speed up the rate of chemical reactions during the digestive and metabolic processes. They act as biological catalysts. Reactions taking place in the cell become a million times faster when an enzyme is involved. The enzyme is specific for a substrate and attaches itself to the active site of the substrate to produce products. The enzyme is not used up during the reactions and does not undergo any change (“Role of Enzymes in Biochemical Reactions”, n.d.).
What are some roles of plasma membranes?
Plasma membranes consist of phospholipid bilayers, which have two opposite ends: hydrophilic end (water-loving) and a hydrophobic end (water-repelling). These two ends help the cells mix properly with water. Phospholipid bilayers contain transport and receptor proteins, which help the transport substances in and out of the cell. The plasma membrane is a semi-permeable membrane; it allows the substances needed for the functioning of the cell to enter, while filters out the rest. Also, the membrane helps maintain a cell potential inside the cell that assists in communication and the exchange of signals from outside the cell (Pandey, 2010)
What are the three major steps for cellular respiration and describe BRIEFLY the metabolic pathway in each.
The three steps for cellular respiration are glycolysis, The Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. Glycolysis is the process in which glucose molecules are broken down from carbohydrates into pyruvates. In this process, a phosphate is removed from ATP, which becomes ADP, and is given to the glucose molecule, making it more chemically reactive. The Krebs cycle is an aerobic process, which means that it requires oxygen. It is a sequence of steps using enzymes as catalysts, which results in the complete oxidization of the Acetyl CoA molecule. The electron transport chain is the process in which most energy is released that has been trapped in the glucose molecule. The electron transport chain is a system of electron-carrying proteins that are found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The electrons are passed along these proteins and are finally joined with oxygen, which is the last electron acceptor (“Understanding Cellular Respiration”, n.d.)
What are some major differences between respiration and fermentation?
Respiration makes use of oxygen to perform the function of electron acceptor to form ATP. During fermentation, inorganic electron donors are used to form ATP such as sulfur and methane. Although both the processes use the same substances to produce ATP, they vary in their respective processes and the amount of energy that is released. Respiration results in the production of 38 ATP, while fermentation only manages to produce 2 ATP. The production of ATP is slower in cellular respiration and quicker in fermentation. Also, respiration is much more effective in producing ATP than fermentation (Emelda, 2011)
What is/are the relationship between the light dependent and light independent reactions in photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: the light dependent stage (takes place in the thylakoid) and the light independent stage (takes place in the stroma). The light dependent reactions store sunlight and use it as chemical energy to perform various functions. Therefore, the light dependent reaction gets its energy from sun light to undergo the process. Light independent reactions, also known as dark reactions, do not have a direct energy source; therefore, they depend on the products produced by the light dependent reactions to undergo the process (“Photosynthesis”, n.d.).
LAB QUESTIONS
Describe how enzymes act as catalysts (include substrates, products, and active site).
Enzymes as biological catalysts are specific in nature and only bind to an active site of a particular substrate. The enzyme works through a lock and key mechanism. The active site on the substrate is the lock and the enzyme is the key. The enzyme will fit itself inside the active site to begin the reaction. Once the enzyme has attached itself, certain chemical reactions take place within the bonds substrate, and the substrate breaks into two products. The enzyme is released and does not undergo any change in composition, and can be used again (“How Do Enzymes Function?” n.d.)
How does substrate concentration affect the rate of enzyme reactions?
As the concentration of the substrate increases, the rate of enzyme reaction increases. But there comes a point when the substrate concentration does not have an effect on the rate, and the enzyme becomes saturated with the substrate. Then the rate depends on the activity of the enzyme, and the amount of substrate does not matter (“The Effect of Substrate Concentration on Enzyme Activity”, n.d.)
How is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) toxic to cells?
Hydrogen peroxide is highly toxic to cells, because it is an unstable and very reactive compound. Our body’s immune system makes use of the toxicity of H2O2 to destroy the bacterial cells. But the hydrogen peroxide, while destroying bacterial cells, can also harm and kill our essential body cells. Therefore, our cells release an enzyme called catalase, which aids in breaking down the toxic H2O2 into normal oxygen and water molecules (“How Does Hydrogen Peroxide Work to Cleanse a Wound?” n.d.)
What other enzyme in addition to catalase removes hydrogen peroxide from cells?
Superoxide dismutase. (Baxamusa, 2012)
References
Baxamusa, B. N. (2012). Enzymes in the body. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/enzymes-in-the-body.html
Emelda, M. (2011) Cellular respiration vs. fermentation. Retrieved from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/nature/difference-between-cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/
How do Enzymes function? (2002, January 1). Retrieved from http://www.microtack.com/html/enzyme1.htm
How does hydrogen peroxide work to cleanse a wound? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/dec99/946002940.Me.r.html
Role of enzymes in biochemical reactions (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/570enzymes.html
Pandey, K. (2010, January 12). Plasma membrane function. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/plasma-membrane-function.html
Photosynthesis (n.d.). Retrieved from http://staff.jccc.net/pdecell/photosyn/photoframe.html#relationship
The effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucbcdab/enzass/substrate.htm
Understanding cellular respiration (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.essortment.com/understanding-cellular-respiration-26483.html Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 44”, n.d.)
Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 44. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1603026-assignment
(Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 44)
Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 44. https://studentshare.org/biology/1603026-assignment.
“Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 44”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1603026-assignment.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Assignment

Activity Based Costing (ABC)

... Activity Based Costing (ABC) is the perfect cure for the problem of overhead allocation within organisations. Critically evaluate this ment.In general, activity based costing (ABC) has been largely described as an alternative method of allocating overhead costs based on logic rather than arbitrarily imputing cost entirely to resulting production output. Historically, ABC started to become popular as an alternative approach to traditional cost accounting about three decades ago, where the latter has become increasingly proving its irrelevance (Emblemsvag, 2010). The increasing automation of production as compared to being labor-intensive, the multiple product lines compared to small number of products being produced... Activity Based Costing...
12 Pages(3000 words)Assignment

International Banking

...?INTERNATIONAL BANKING-LAW AND PRACTICE Task Questions Regulation of Banks 2. Security for secured syndicated loans in an international context NAME OF STUDENT STUDENT NUMBER LAW M591 INSTRUCTOR’S NAME 22ND DECEMBER 2011. Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 1.0REGULATION OF BANKS 2 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Banking Regulation Policy Highlights 2 1.3 Main objectives of bank regulation 3 1.4 Disadvantages to the regulation of these businesses because of the behaviours they encourage in the regulated entities and their customers. 8 2.0SECURITY FOR SECURED SYNDICATED LOANS IN AN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT 10 2.1 Introduction 10 2.2 Overview of Common law and civil law jurisdiction with regard to secure syndicated loans 11 2.3 Different... BANKING-LAW...
18 Pages(4500 words)Assignment

Human sexuality

...? Sociology Sociology Question 1a) If there is one thing that has known variations, it is the things that would draw individuals to each other when starting relationships. Many people believe that as far as relationships are concerned, individuals with shared values or characteristics will most likely be attracted to each other. Others hold the opinion that individuals who are too much alike would not last long as a couple and therefore people tend to look for those that complement them. In quite a number of cases however, individuals are attracted to those people who are different from them since they seek complementary traits in the individual. One thing that you will acknowledge is that as much as these two arguments may look... Sociology...
18 Pages(4500 words)Assignment

Higher Education in Crisis: Whither the University

...?Higher education in crisis: Whither the Introduction Higher education is the goal of most individuals. They see it as a valuable means of establishing successful careers and of landing lucrative jobs in the employment market. Recently however, reports of difficulties in gaining higher education and of establishing rich careers from such an education have become apparent. This paper shall discuss what the university is for and what higher education is for. It shall discuss the role of the intellectual in the 21st century, including the issues and challenges associated with mass higher education. It shall also consider the apparent globalization of western management education. A discussion of the relationship between the labour... education...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

Marketing Communication and Branding

...Marketing Communication and Branding Question 1 Q.1. Communication objectives are the factors which support the organisation to move from the present position to a new and improved position. The objective of marketing communication should be SMART, i.e. ‘Specific, Measurable, Actionable, Realistic, and Time specific’. In relation to the case study, three communication objectives can be stated such as: Increase in the awareness among people by around 35% to 50% within the eight weeks from the day the campaign will commence Introducing a sale or discount and creating 70% awareness a day before the sale/discount begin. Reposition the firm to an up market business news paper from an old news paper. The first objective would... Communication...
4 Pages(750 words)Assignment

Philosophy quizes

...?Na me Philosophy Quizzes SS.R 5-9, 11-12 In the dialogue, Plato reveals that death is the event that releases the soul from its earthly prison, which is the body. For Plato, the soul is the real self --- and is immortal --- and that death and dying is a means to release the person's true being. It means that the body will decompose at death, but the soul is incapable of doing so. 2. The Katha Upanishad, according to Yama's teaching, is the passenger of the chariot, which is the body (1.3.3-4). This is similar to the ideas found in Phaedrus or Parmenides. The need for self-realization is the reason behind birth, thus the need for a chariot, which is the earthly body. Once one's desires are fulfilled and begins to love nothing else...
20 Pages(5000 words)Assignment

Human Resource Management in Practice. Explanation of human`s skills

...? Human Resource Management in Practice Table of Contents Developing the Practitioner 3 Communications and meeting skills 4 Presentation Skills 5 Training and Learning 6 Equality and Diversity 7 Recruitment and Selection 8 Performance Management and Appraisal 9 Absence Management 10 Counselling/mediation-developing skills for the workplace 11 Grievance and Discipline 12 Management of Change 13 Reflective Statement 14 References 20 Developing the Practitioner The competitive environment and the quest for excellence in business organizations has necessitated the need to ensure human resource development. In this regard the role of the practitioner assumes utmost priority in an organization. A practitioner in the area of human... Human Resource...
20 Pages(5000 words)Assignment

A comparative analysis between Franklins Caf and Caffe Nero

...?Organizational Analysis and Behavior Introduction: The aim of this essay paper is to make a comparative analysis between two organizations that havethe same industrial background. In this paper, compare and contrast are being done between the two firms Franklin’s Cafe (a small business) and Caffe Nero (a large multinational business). The analysis is done mainly with respect to the two important topics relevant in the organizations. The topics discussed are done mainly on the basis of the case study that helps to answer question like which one of the two organizations would one prefer to be a customer and an employee. This essay paper not only states which organization one would want to be an employee and a customer, but also... Analysis and ...
17 Pages(4250 words)Assignment

Origin and Evolution of Birds Paper

...?Chul lee Blake Animal Biology 102 November 28, Origin and Evolution of Birds Birds are a truly unique set of animals in the world. For millions of generations, birds have constantly been living on earth. As the evolution theory came to being and many scientists came forth to prove it, the evolution of birds was not left behind. Birds are animals that evolved millions of years ago due to a number of factors in order to resemble the modern day birds (Heilmann 2). As more research is put forth on the origin and the evolution of birds, many results seems to be emanating day by day as new discoveries are made. In the recent years, with enhancement in scientific development, much has been able to be got related to the origin... lee Blake Animal...
11 Pages(2750 words)Assignment

Marketing plan for the healthcare company (nursing home service)

...?Executive Summary  Marketing has always been the most essential functions for all types of businesses and industries including health care industry.World’s population is growing rapidly and so the number of older people. According to researches and studies, the fastest growing demographic are people aged above 80. At the economic level, every shift in demographics brings economic and social challenges with itself. Even in the healthcare systems, the concept of ageing population adds pressure and demands along with itself. At the level of an individual, increased life span brings several challenges with itself. Old aged people have to face certain types of problems when they are at home. At this crucial stage of life, where... Summary ...
15 Pages(3750 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Assignment on topic Assignment for FREE!

Contact Us