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According to Armstrong (2007), haploid cell is that containing two complete sets (2n) of identical chromosomes while on the same breath, diploid cells are those having half the number of cells as diploid that is they contain just one complete set (n) of chromosome in the…
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Biology Questions Write short paragraph answers in your own words for the following questions What are haploid and diploid cells and how does the process of fertilization produce a diploid cell?
According to Armstrong (2007), haploid cell is that containing two complete sets (2n) of identical chromosomes while on the same breath, diploid cells are those having half the number of cells as diploid that is they contain just one complete set (n) of chromosome in the nucleus.
A diploid cell is as a result of meiosis (a special kind of cell division) and fertilization of haploid egg and haploid sperm from diploid parents. From this, diploid zygotes containing both maternal and paternal chromosomes are formed. With each set coming from either parent. The diploid zygote undergoes mitosis to form a diploid organism (Armstrong (2007).
2. Describe the similarities and differences between mitosis and meiosis.
Some of the differences between mitosis include but not limited to, mitotic cells divide once whereas meiotic cells divide twice. Mitosis results in cell replication as for meiosis, genetic recombination and production of reproductive cells being the sole aim. Mitosis doesn’t yield exact copies whereas meiosis does. Mitosis also gives rise to diploid cells while meiosis gives haploid cells. DNA crossover occurs only in meiosis (Armstrong, 2007).
As for similarities, duplication of an organism’s genome takes place only once preceding any other duplication in both processes. There is the existence of metaphase plates, centrioles in both (Armstrong, 2007). Basic steps of division are the same for both. Mitosis and meiosis occurs both in eukaryotic cells. Finally, both represent reproduction processes.
Genetic Problem
A wild population contains tall and short plants. In one cross, two parental tall plants yield all tall progeny. In another experiment, two short plants are crossed and all progeny are short (cross 2). In the third experiment (cross number 3), two different short plants from cross 2 are crossed and 23 tall progeny and 77 short progeny are observed.
Explain the observations, give the most probable genotypes of the parents and progeny of each cross, and identify which are dominant and recessive.
Cross 1
Parental Genotypes TT × tt
Parental gametes T and t
F1 Genotype=All tall offspring (Tt)
The F1 generation came about through selfing of F1 plants. While maintaining Mendel’s first law, law of segregation, where the gamete is formed when each member of the allelic get disjointed from their other member. Confirmation of accuracy of his law through selfing of F2 plants yielded all tall and short plants respectively (Tornqvist, 2006). This can be depicted using a Punnet square as depicted on the next page.
Cross 2

This helps a lot in determining exact genetic ratios. For instance, Genotypic ratio of F2 =1T:2Tt:1tt whereas phenotypic ratio OF F2=3 Tall: 1 Short.
Cross 3
Phenotypes
Genotypes
Genetic Description
F2 Tall Plants
A third DD
2 thirds Dd
Pure line homozygote dominant
Heterozygotes
F2 Dwarf Plants
all dd
Pure line homozygote recessive

References
Armstrong, V. (2007). Mitosis and meiosis: the science of cell division. Christchurch [N.Z.: User Friendly Resources.
Tornqvist, C. (2006). Plant genetics. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. Read More
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