The paper attempts to explore how the disease affected Europe during the time and then in subsequent years. The bubonic plague is known as a rat disease because it is not found at the places where rats are absent. Rats are hosts of a pathogen – a kind of bacillus known as Yersinia pestis.
Conversely, glial cells back the functions of the neurons. Information transmission occurs electrically along the neurons. This electrical information flow prompts nerve cells to produce two types of graded potentials, which are Action potentials and Graded potentials.
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The sweetness of fruit depends on the chemical structure of it. The sweet taste of the fruits is attributed by the presence of fructose contained in it. In general, fruits are comprised of, fructose, cellulose, vitamins, starch, and acids. These entire compounds combine to give a particular taste to the fruit.
This technology is growing at a very high rate hence becoming very common in many countries. The technology involves two genes from two different species being combined together, where genes from a different species are inserted into the DNA of that particular food or plant.
Not all the birds are migratory but many of those that do so fly to warmer places in order to catch their food and protect themselves from the harsh weather (Solov'yov 40). Unlike other animals, birds do not have to suffer food shortages or seasonal changes and they can protect themselves by migrating to a new place.
Visible light is a form of electromagnetic radiation of wavelength of approximately 400 to 750 nanometers (Bernstein et al. 2007, P.45). However, the sensation of light in the eye is dependent on both the intensity and wavelength of light. In this regard, the wavelength usually determines the color that one sees because of sensation while intensity determines how bright or dim the light is sensed by the eye.
All these constituents have different role in maintaining culture environment. An aseptic condition is the basic need for cell culture since in an unsterilized condition bacteria, virus or fungi can grow which subsequently contaminate the growth of the cultured cells in vitro.
The system has two further subdivisions in the form of peripheral nervous system alongside central nervous system (Valery, 2006). Peripheral Nervous System Peripheral nervous system has two types of cells these cells are the ones that are responsible for carrying different sorts of information across the nervous systems.
The seeds of poppy plant can be used as a source of food product and oil for edible purposes. In terms of geographic origin, opium poppy was first originated in around 3,400 B.C. when the plant was first grown in South East Asia, in lower part of Mesopotamia (Drug Enforcement Administration Museum & Visitors Center, n.d.).
Eusthenopteron is the genus name of the prehistoric sarcopterygian. The same genus was often called the lobe-finned fishes, which has managed to attain the iconic status due to the close relationship to the tetrapods. It emerged from water onto the land, but some contradiction arises in the essence widely that this animal was strictly aquatic.
Some pollination processes are facilitated through the aids of birds and bees among other animals (Wachman, n.d.; 01). Pollination usually creates fruit holding seeds that are used to further the plant generation. Angiosperms have or produce two types of seeds including monocots that have only cotyledon and the dicots with two cotyledons.
Using the statistics thye report describes this problem. To openn the whole picture it comes back to the history. The existence of the disease can be traced back to the Roman times. The name malaria comes from the “mal”aria which means bad air in medieval Italy. When the term was coined it was believed that malaria was caused by breathing in bad air.
Until recently, Porifera had been considered a phylum but new evidence suggests that it is a clade. A clade represents organisms that have a common ancestor and members of the clade may both be extant or extinct. This is much larger than the limiting phylum under which Porifera was thought to belong.
These high galactose levels result from the lack of the liver enzyme necessary for the metabolism of this sugar. This paper aims at discussing a disease known as galactosemia. The paper will discuss the protein enzyme that is malfunctioning. In addition, the paper will include how common the disease is, the symptoms of the disease, and the therapy used in the treatment of the disease.
They are photosynthetic single celled organisms that manufacture their food using sunlight energy. The other term is Zooplankton, which represents organisms within this category that are either single or multi-celled animals and they feed on living planktons (Cable, 1966).
An obese person is therefore one who has too much fats in their body than should be, hence greatly affecting their body weight. Overweight in an individual can therefore be classified as obesity when their Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeds 30 (thirty) (Kiess, Marcus, & Wabitsch 2004).
It is present in various foods like chocolate, tea, coffee and certain soft drinks like cola and in some medicated compounds (Hartley et al, 2001). Caffeine has stimulatory effects on the central nervous system. It causes temporary restoration of alertness after warding off drowsiness.
In 1987,researchers of animal vocal communication collaborated and researched concerning theories that encompass concepts of animal vocal communication.The Game Theory,an analysis of the animal vocal communication studies,includes data and descriptions that analyze the frequency dependence of animal vocal communications in a given or observed setting.
Though this species predominantly occupies North America, it is widespread and highly adaptable with twelve subspecies being recognized in the northern part of Mexico, South of Canada, and several parts of the United States. The species prefers a wooded environment, however, can also live in semi desert areas and swamps.
In the process, they discovered a durable wooly skin that could protect them from cold, heat, rain, and wind. The wooly skin also kept the primitive man cool during a hot sunny day and warm during the cold, windy night. In addition, the wool helped in absorbing moisture without necessarily feeling wet.
The Situation was a botulism bioterrorist attacks that was spread to various US cities through soda bottles. Botulism toxin is one of the most toxic substances known to man. Since dispersal of the toxin would be difficult, the people who caused the terrorist attack chose to manufacture the toxin on a large scale and spread the same through retrieving about 10 to 15% of the bottles from the market, infesting them with the toxin and re-introducing them into the market.
These distinctions in health consequences can be described in part by particular and inherent immune aspects available in human milk. The mother has plasma cells in the bronchial tree and intestine move to the mammary epithelium and emits antibodies particular to antigens in the immediate environment giving particular immune against micro-organisms in the mother’s surrounding.
Subsequently, numerous strains of the organism have been discovered. Alcaligenes faecalis is a “motile, flagellated, slender, slightly curved, non spore-forming, slowly growing, nonfermenting, nonencapsulated gram-negative aerobe of the family Achromobacter” state Kavuncuoglu et al (118).
Question 1 Appraisal is the systematic evaluation of several factors in an individual, a family or a given community that would lead to illness and other health related problems. Based on the laboratory results, an assessment and complete evaluation can be done.
Desalination is a “technology that separates dissolved salts and other minerals from seawater or other salty water to provide clean drinking water” (Desalination: Fresh Water from the Sea, 2013). In fact, oceans contain 97% of the global supply of water and thus its immense source can be tapped in order to provide freshwater to a fast-growing world population (Desalination, 2013).
At the current rate, which the Earth’s resources are being used at, the planet will have been exhausted within the next hundred years. The current rate at which the plant is refreshing its resources, such as water catchments, forest cover and also the absorption of the waste produced by human activity, such as manufacturing and greenhouse farming, (Birkeland 98) is much lower than the rate at which the wastes are produced.
Bispecific antibodies widen a potential utility of therapies based on antibodies through enabling engagement of two different targets simultaneously. However, production and design of bispecific antibodies have remained challenging.
This mechanism of biology on which mammals and other vertebrates are heavily reliant on, including genes of the cone opsin and their specific photopigments is conserved to a very high level. However, they way in which different mammals use color vision’s fundamental elements varies strikingly, especially in the way that they emerge and disappear in various altered forms over the evolutionary course.
With its horrible mental and physical symptoms, Down syndrome is certainly a huge concern not only for medical professionals and for medical science but especially for the parents of those affected with this deadly and incurable genetic disorder.
The many subtypes of influenza A virus and most of their strains are adapted to birds and this makes the influenza A virus the bird flu virus. However, this adaptation is not exclusive. Instead, strains of influenza including influenza A are adapted to different species and that is why bird flu can also be transmitted to humans.
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Cholera is common is Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The characteristic incubation period of cholera is 1-5 days. The site of action of pathogen is the wall of small intestine. The bacteria cannot survive in the highly acidic contents of the stomach. However, if the bacteria manage to reach the small intestine they secrete a powerful toxin known as choleragen.
Despite various side effects, the cosmetic use of Botox has gained widespread popularity, owing to the relatively less intrusive and less painful procedures that are adopted for this therapy. However, therapeutic treatment of botulism requires further research work before effective clinical benefits are derived from it.
full=true. The article explores the different facets of evolution based on Darwin’s theory. Moreover, it distinguishes evolution as the binding force in other fields of biology such as palaeontology, microbiology and genetics. To this end, the author recognizes the role played by evolution in shaping over five million living organisms on the Earth.
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The importance of organ donation can be estimated through the fact that thousands of people are registered in the waiting list of individuals who want their organs to be transplanted in the region of United States (Maier, 2011, p.318). Not everybody is lucky to obtain an organ while he/she is still healthy and living, several die and their names on the waiting list are then removed.
These carbohydrate sources became much more preferred by the farmers and the consumers due to the greater yield per hectare and calorie content, better taste in comparison with locally-available crops such as sorghum and yam. Also, the corn’s additional layers of husks protect it from many pests, making it less prone to damage compared with the fragile sorghum.
Therefore, to implement a local diet, one needs to follow the guidelines proposed by Priebe (2011) in the article entitled “An Overview of the 100-Mile Diet” published online in ecolife. As noted, a local diet could be implemented through observing the following steps: (1) starting simple; (2) try to connect with local farmers; (3) endeavor to grow vegetables in one’s own garden; (4) when shopping locally, purchase in bulk and learn how to preserve; and (5) just take things in stride and relax (Priebe, 2011).
They are most commonly found in Texas, and somewhat in southeastern Canada and northeastern Mexico; however, they are distributed all over the world because of their popularity as sport fish. They are usually green in color from the top and are white underneath, with dark colored spots on either side going in the form of horizontal line.
The control of cheating aids in understanding the changes in evolution. High relatedness entails the distribution of co-operators and cheaters into different groups that would reduce the ability of cheaters to exploit co-operators, as well as reveal the defects of cheaters at the group level in the natural selection.
The experimental values with respect to tidal volume, vital capacity, inspiratory capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume and the total lung capacity were similar to the personal predicted values. Residual volume and Functional Residual Capacity were much higher as compared to the predicted values.
This driving force behind my motivation had sprung up from my six years old neighbor that I had next-door in our new house. She was a pretty child but I couldn’t understand at that time why she wasn’t like me and why she couldn’t study at the same school with me.
In most studies, there is the indication that this community, due to some of its cultural aspects, is making it particularly difficult to handle the prevalence rate of this incurable retro-virus. Unfortunately, that is just one example of a community that is suffering from the menace that is HIV.
Mammals, fish, plants, and insects as well as microorganisms, which include yeast and bacteria, are examples of organisms that have been modified genetically (Starr, Evers, & Starr, 2013). For several decades, scientists have used experimental animals for biomedical research as well as scientific investigations.
Sleep apnea is a condition that involves disturbed or extremely shallow breathing during sleeping periods, which can cause a number of problems that may negatively impact the sufferers way of life (Chan et al, 2004). The links between sleep apnea and obesity are fairly well-researched, and there are suggestions that it is the extra weight on the chest area that causes the phenomenon by making it more difficult for the individual to breathe when lying down (Clark, 2005).
Acid Base Balance Case Study A diagnosis involves identifying the cause and nature of anything. It is mostly used in the determination of symptoms, symptom causes, solutions to issues, and mitigation of problems (De Mendonca, 2004). The patient was suffering from a disease known as the respiratory acidosis.
This research paper will focus on the regulation of the exocrine function. The exocrine function involves the release of digestive enzymes through the pancreatic duct. The research specifically handles the regulation of the acinar cells. These cells are responsible for the release of zymogens that play a critical role in digestion.
Hazardous drinking of alcohol describes the instance when its consumption is likely to cause or increase the individual’s risks, thereby, developing the harms which are related to alcohol. The harms include the one, which are psychological or physical specifically impairing ones judgments, or dysfunctional behaviors, which may lead to consequence for interpersonal relationship or disability.
While insulin is released to lower levels of blood glucose, glucagon does the opposite and is released when there is a significant or dramatic drop in levels of glucose. When it is released, it acts on the liver, which in turn releases glucose into the blood that was previously stored as glycogen.
It is a technology that uses living organisms to make superior products that meets life’s greatest needs in a careful and regulated way. It is worth noting that biotechnology has been in existence for quite a long time including preservation of dairy products and beer fermentation and forms a huge part of the daily life.
This essay discusses that mechanical digestion occurs in the mouth and mastication occurs when a person starts to chew and grinds the food using the molars and premolars. As the tongue moves around the food inside the mouth when chewing, the soft palate closes the nasal passages and airway so that the food stays inside the mouth.
It is, therefore necessary that one has an insight of the theory before getting into details of natural selection. This theory has its origin with Charles Darwin who went further to come up with an immense body of data in support of the theory. Before him, most scholars and scientists believed that the existence and adaptation of each organism was under the influence of the creator (Bootle, 2011).