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Toxic sugar - Essay Example

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The method that identifies a longitudinal cohort study under ‘non-experimental,’ design of qualitative research approach is a recognized approach but is not valid for the study. Existence of research confounds over the research period compromises the study’s validity…
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Analysis and scientific method of the article, ‘Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: Results from three prospective longitudinal studies’ The method that identifies a longitudinal cohort study under ‘non-experimental,’ design of qualitative research approach is a recognized approach but is not valid for the study. Existence of research confounds over the research period compromises the study’s validity. Historical confounds are one of the factors that threatens the study’s validity. Having considered a long period of time, there is a high probability that changes in factors such as living standards that affect other factors to type two diabetes. The changes would therefore influence the study’s results to the perception that identified effects are attributed to types of fruits. Maturation effect, changes in research participants’ responses following numerous exposure to the study’s instrument is another major confound to the study (Goodwin, 2009). The study could be improved through implementing an experimental design over a short period. the design would randomly select research paericipants and organize them into strata with standard conditions. One group, a control group, would refrain from fruit consumption while each of the remaining groups would be subjected to single types of fruits and data collected, and tests performed, to determine incidence rates of type 2 diabetes among the participants (Muraki et. al., 2013).
The researchers conducted the research themselves. Even though participant administered questionnaires were used, significant involvement in determination of participants’ consumption levels justifies the researchers’ role. Researchers’ participation in a research matter because it establishes grounds for evaluating reliability threats due to researchers’ bias. Not involvement communicates higher level reliability of a study. The researchers studies human subjects, people identified as women and men. The large number of participants used in the study, 66105 women, 36173 men and 85104 other women, was sufficient though there was no treatment. This means absence of placebo and treatment groups. Researchers in the study considered a 25 year period in which data was collected for different research participants. The period began in the year 1984 and ended in the year 2009 and was long enough for a longitudinal study (Muraki et. al., 2013).).
The study was not a controlled experiment because its feature does not meen definition of a controlled experiments. Controlled experiments involved randomization of a study’s participants into groups that receive different treatments, characteristics that did not exist in the study. Opportunities for confounding variables existed in the study’s long perion and multiple measures. These could have resulted in confounds of history due to such changes as lifestyles, confounds due to maturation and instrumentation as a results of multiple exposure to the involved questionnaires. Possibilities also exist that the researchers and participants’ bias confounded the results. the study’s scope could help in determining this. There was for example lack of measures for evaluating validity of the participants’ independent response and possible conflict of interest among the researchers on the subject. This was neither a blind nor double blind study because no criteria is established to conceiling results. Women from the Nurses’ Health Study, women from the Nurses’ Health Study II and men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, subject to freedom from major chronic diseases, were the research participants. The study did not investigate demographic factors but its long period establishes grounds for generalizability (Muraki et. al., 2013).).
I believe that the study supports Lustig’s theory of toxic sugar. This is because the study identifies effects of different fruit types on type 2 diabetes, and therefore suggests effects on the body. This means that consumables may have adverse effects on the body and sugat could be dangerous. The research is relevant to development of knowledge on safe foods for consumption towards behavioral based approaches to managing chronic diseases. This could possibly influence eating habits towards a healthy society, locally and globally.
References
Goodwin, C. (2009). Research in psychology: Methods and design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Muraki, I. et. al. (2013). Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: Results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies. BMJ. Retrieved from: http://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f5001. Read More
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