Since the man was killed, it is impossible to know exactly what the cause of his troubling thoughts was but it is suggested that the cause was a tumor which altered his thinking. If this man were to survive and stand trial once healed of his tumor, the moral dilemma is to decide whether he is guilty of the crimes he committed while suffering the tumor.
What is Philosophy?
1.) Which of the philosophical issues covered this semester has been the most important and why so?
Among all the various philosophical issues that have been covered this semester, I consider Ethics as the most important. While the study of Metaphysics and Epistemology are the core important issues in philosophy, Ethics is considered an issue that is close to the daily problems that people deal with, and that is a matter that should not be overlooked.
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In the larger political arena, political philosophies are usually established by the state’s constitution and these perceptions serve as standards in the running of the state’s political and governmental affairs. Inasmuch as the political philosophies are protected by state legal mandates, most people have their individual and personal political philosophies, and these philosophies may not often be similar to the state-supported philosophies.
However, this will depend on the fact that whether you believe in any of the two places. Some dualists believe that people’s body and soul intertwine. Experience has confirmed that every person eventually dies (Stewart 85). Simultaneously, Hasidic lore maintains that people’s souls live forever even after the body dies.
Even though people are born in different countries and speak different languages, they belong to one race and that is ‘humanity.’ If you have a relative or a friend who is suffering from starvation, then you will definitely help him by providing food as long as you have enough resources.
My own experience visiting, interacting with residents and workers, and reflecting on those experiences at Brandon Woods is the mine of concrete experience on which I intend to draw insights into the ethics of euthanasia.
A few challenges include research activities. Research will affirm or negate a research question. Research includes gathering evidences to accept or reject a hypothesis. My current research challenge will result to proving that God exists, using cosmological argument.
Immanuel Kant considers old philosophical problems using new methods. Kant defends morality from reduction to self-interest, empirical fact, or feelings. Rather, he bases his supreme moral principle on reason. Kant attempts to uncover common sense morality’s principles.
Kelsen (1937) critically notes that the influence of Aristotelian philosophy has varied in its magnitude and lasting impact. While, the thinker’s stance on politics and ethics is still scrutinized upon to this day, enjoying unparalleled discussion and assessments, his once unassailable logic in the arena of sciences has been greatly challenged to the extent of extinction (Kelsen 45-50).
Nonetheless, the most vital significance of the philosophy of education is the academic field that deals with knowledge transfer since it is the essential or the central knowledge or subject matter that aims at solving learning problems that include the philosophical methodologies that are vital for all learning processes within any education discipline (Elias 136).
Business has a big contribution to society and with it comes big responsibility as well. Milton Friedman (1970) of the New York Times Magazine stated that: ‘The primary and only responsibility of business is to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception and fraud.’ With this, comes the aim of this paper to present the definition and relationship of business and society to entrepreneurship, capitalism and profit making.
Good governance as championed by many political philosophers should lead to a number of benefits that include the involvement of all citizens in decision-making, political participation by the minority and marginalized groups, freedom of information and expression, and formation institutional reforms.
A discussion between two characters- About moral relativism Ethics, a set of rules in a society that regulates people’s behaviour by defining wrongs and rights in a society, is a fundamental aspect of people’s behaviour. Different ethical theories exist to explain people’s behaviours and to offer general rules towards a more cohesive society.
The way the human beings or the persons of the 21st century behave and functions largely depend on their environment and the manner in which the surroundings and the society condition the mannerisms and behavior of the human beings. With defining their behaviors every now and then, persons tend to justify their activities and actions and hence in many cases reject their responsibilities for their own actions (Farahani).
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Like other global thinkers before him such as Goethe and Holderlin in Germany, Hegel attempted to grasp what developments were in store socially for Europe. By studying James Stuart, Adam Smith, and Adam Ferguson, Hegel was able to gain a view of a world where individual self-interest ruled and where fragmented and atomized masses of humans were condemned to dehumanizing labor.
The rapid urbanization further resulted into the rapid increase in the way modern thought and practices started to develop across the whole Europe and America. Modernism in its essence, therefore, depends upon how quickly the overall process of urbanization takes place within any given society.
Purpose of Government according to Philosophers. The purpose for which governments should exist has been a preoccupation of philosophers from the classical period to the modern societies. While Plato and Aristotle represent classical philosophers, Hobbes and Locke are a part of what is seen as modern philosophers.
According to Peter Singer, some people argue that people should be allowed to follow their own beliefs regarding donating money as everyone has a different take on the issue (Singer 25). However, this can be a deceptive argument as allowing everyone to freely profess his or her beliefs might not bring good to the society.
Therefore, democracy can be referred to as a form of government under which foremost power is bestowed on the people. The people exercise this power either directly or indirectly through a network of representation that are elected through a system of periodic elections.
Bible says that the first human Adam committed a wrong thing when he ate a fruit which was denied to him by God. Adam committed the first sin or wrong thing under the influence of evil forces. In other words, evil forces were there even before the creation of the first human Adam. Since the first sin, the segregation of the right thing from the wrong thing has started in the world.
The theories of human communication that have dictated the various means by which humans communicated since times immemorial, have now given way to newer, more unconventional theories. Fresh theories are now emerging, covering newer perspectives of communication through modern electronic media.
All of these reinforce the natural right of people to do what they want, for as long as the actions taken do not wreak harm on other beings, and more importantly, on other people. Since the term ‘doing what is wanted’ is conceptually and practically ambiguous, as the inclination toward the good and the avoidance of the bad have been subjected to people’s own reasoning and interpretation, the society has drafted rules that aimed at controlling the behavior of people.
The T’angculture is the gift of China to the world, it has been heavily influenced by Buddhism when it comes to art and it is incredibly popular across the globe. Taoism is also a gift from China, the name may sound very complicated but in reality it is not as complicated as it sounds.
Aristotle and Kant are two philosophers that are well known in the field of ethics. However, before critically analysing the two philosophers accordingly to their philosophical framework, it is better to have a full grasp or understanding of societal contexts where they are confined.
The ethical code of a health professional helps him or her in deciding whether a certain act or procedure is moral or immoral. In certain situations, the health professional is also faced by two conditions which are either right or moral to a certain extent and decision has to be made in favor of a situation that is more right.
Gilbert is much concerned about the issues that may guide us to realize our future happiness and identity and how one can utilize these factors to achieve their happiness. According to Gilbert,we learn from others and to achieve our future happiness,the experience of others might prove to be of utmost importance as compared to individual’s experience.
The film informs us about how she lost her parents, and because of these become forced into some isolation. This enabled her posses an active mind that managed to keep her of the isolation thoughts. She helps a man who works as a painter reunite back with his family.
Professor’s Name Student’s Name Philosophy 10 January, 2012 Essay Questions 1] Life, for me, is living at the present moment; to attain the ideal perfection of human capability. In my view, it is our mentality and behavior towards life that decides the worth of our lives.
The author states that Boethius declares the unexpected outcome of an action as chance, which circumscribes human free will in such an influential manner that it appears to be vehemently dependent of some natural causality already determined and decided by the Omniscient. In other words, it is nature that bestows blessings on humans.
To my mind, protection of its citizens is the crucial ethical role that has to be performed by any State or Government. Further on in this essay, the main positions of the abovementioned philosophers are summarized and a personal position on the role of government is provided.
In Descartes' view, the urge to reason with everyone and almost at everything and the verbal communication are the characteristics that set humans separately from all other kinds. Using the belief of parsimony, wherein one always necessarily begins with the unpretentious details of pragmatic events, Descartes reasons that the perceived actions of all nonhuman living beings can be explained without crediting minds and understanding.
I have always looked up to my Grandfather as the perfect Paxton and I hoped to become somebody like him someday. That’s how things were in our family. The men always revered their elder family members. Women taught their children to hold on to family values and tradition.
Charles Darwin's work According to Popper, Kuhn, and Van. The philosophical work of Charles Darwin has attracted criticism from other philosophers that have supported or faulted his arguments. Darwin views tried to account for various evolution activities as well as the social nature of human beings.
Metaphysics asserts that it is possible to have knowledge of something based on pure reason. Kant objected these claims and doubted pure reason. He used two methods; priori and posteriori knowledge to doubt about metaphysics. According to Kant, it is significant to differentiate between analytic and synthetic judgments since it is possible that some judgments will turn out to be synthetic and priori at the same time.
Smith also claimed that he had several visions from God and that was the cause why he proposed to undertake this new mission. The cult, which claims to be the true church of Jesus Christ, has its own distinctive beliefs and texts different from those of Catholicism and Protestantism.
On a larger scale, Hobbes also argue that states are also by nature guided by self-interest and destructive, thus, the necessity of a leader; the idea which I do not agree with. I did not agree with Hobbes’ argument about individuals being chaotic and miserable by default and that the basis of government is to put order upon this chaos.
The activities of violence were seen as instruments to further consolidate the existence, governance and the administration of the states. The plan behind adoption of activities of violence by the Europeans developed from the idea that war makes states. The violence and war in Europe led to the promotion of modern thinking, politics, economy and the society.
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Although the original book appeared in Greek, a factor that has made translation quite hectic, this volume manages to bring out ideas as perceived by Aristotle. The book provides insight on the virtues and vices described by Aristotle. The volume consists of ten books as Aristotle penned them down.
The arguments are driven from logical reasoning, where the observer analyses all that they know of the world and the imagined world, to the extent that they reach the conclusion that an all-powerful God exists (Malcolm 41-50). One of the key models of this argument is the one developed by St.
Daniels rejects a rights theory of health care access. He does so not because he finds the arguments uncompelling but because “Rights are not moral fruits that spring up from bare earth, fully ripened, without cultivation”; rather, a right can only be defined in the context of society’s shared agreements.
Even after immense advancements in medical science, still we are unable to create an artificial life form in laboratory setup. In other words, the mysteries surrounding life is still remain unresolved. Moreover, according to medical ethics; the primary duty of healthcare professionals is to assist patients in getting rid of their diseases.
Why does Lewis [Lewis Harry A. (1998) ‘Consciousness: Inexplicable – And Useless Too?’] object to Chalmers’ view of the ‘hard problem’? Is he right in his objections and why? Chalmers view on the hard problem Chalmer argues that state of consciousness does bring about one of the most alarming issues within the science involving the mind of human beings.
The author of the paper tells that Christians believe in life after death and that their members go either to heaven, purgatory or to hell according to one’s morals. Abraham religions and materialistic believe in the resurrection of the dead where the body will take another form and survive death. Gods establish a resurrection of a person based on one's actions and beliefs.
After considering the view of utilitarianism ethics, I believe that the decision I took was valid to a great extent. My decision was based on a greater good. I wanted to help both the parents and the child. With the treatment of euthanasia, the child would be able to relieve the pain that he had been suffering from since the time he was born.
Moreover, individual perceptions regarding issues such as sexuality, religion or political ideology are based on the worldviews. Consequently, the necessity for worldviews can be compared to “eye glasses” that offer the best prescription in understanding the world.
Ryle's Criticisms of Cartesian Dualism The Cartesian view essentially posits that mind and body are two separate realities, with the body having its career in time and space, and mind having its career outside of that. Consciousness is the manifestation of mind, to be accessed and confirmed through introspection and through the self-acknowledging that consciousness by going inside.
The Stoics of the Roman era was of the opinion that the human beings should comply with the process of nature and these human beings are allowed and have the authority to decide when to take away their own lives once they were tired of it (Emanuel 176). There are historical signs of existence of euthanasia but the historical concept of euthanasia is quite different from the concept that is followed and practiced in today’s society.
The author wants to convince the reader that the reason why body parts are being sold illegally is that the government does not coordinate with the various offices and organizations involved in the handling and management of these body parts. Moreover, the author wants to emphasize that it is this lack of coordination and communication between the government and these various agencies that has eventually allowed the illegal trade in human bodies to proliferate.
So begins a dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro discussing mainly, the topic of holiness. Euthyphro is a dogmatic man who insists on following the set rules. He has come to court because he is pressing charges against his father on accounts of murder.
Thus, according to Utilitarian view, the correct course of action is one that maximizes the net benefit to the society. This is done when the costs are minimized and the benefits are maximized. The term Utilitarianism is derived from the word “Utility” which refers to the net benefits of any action on the society (Mill 4).