Name: Instructor’s Name: Course: Date of Submission: Descartes What is epistemology? If we define it narrowly, it is the study of justified belief and knowledge. If epistemology is considered as a study of knowledge, it deals with the following questions: What are the sufficient and necessary conditions for knowledge?
Plato values the concept of emotion but regard beings not to act out of emotions. He argues that, one should utilize reasoning and logic to channel emotions to create a constructive thing that enhance truth facts. He gives an example of art that often create emotion response to the reader but fails to cause an effective reasoning.
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In this case study of Kenneth and Emily, we see them making some strange decisions due to what happened in the past. The decisions they make may be out of free will or not depending on the psychological impact they have on them. Free will tags along a problem for philosophy of mind and ethics because the repercussions have ethical importance and extends to the pure conception of ourselves.
Immanuel Kant, born in 1724, said that moral necessities were a function of rationality. He emphasized on the fact that immorality takes into account the breach of Categorical Imperative (CI) and is therefore not rational. Many other philosophers such as Hobbes and Locke also said that moral requirements were a result of the rationality standards.
The premise of experimentation further got results to indicate that people prefer sad situations that take long but get less sad with time than to experience sad moments that end abruptly but leave behind a mark.
What are the weaknesses of the will?
If we talk about the views of Aristotle on the weaknesses of the will, we should recognize that in his outstanding philosophy he followed Plato and Socrates considering acquiring virtues to be the top priority in the life of all of us.
Various thinkers and philosophers have defined justice as per their viewpoints. The present article compares the philosophy of justice given by Socrates with the philosophy of justice specified by Adolf Hitler.
Raymond Carver’s ‘What We Talk About, When We Talk about Love’ is the titular story of his 1980s short story collection that had great influence on a generation of short story writers. The collection and the story specifically consider the extent that in contemporary society if it’s accurate to even speak of a concept of love.
“In order to understand the esthetic in its ultimate and approved forms, one must begin with it in the raw…“ (Dewey, 4). Beginning the restoration of any vehicle “in the raw” can be a daunting but rewarding task. The initial problem is simple: finding the right car.
e pool. In order to eliminate various parts of the human genome, we might very well make some species extinct. Not only that, but genetic engineering is not a perfect science. Therefore we must be very careful as to how we trod this issue. Macklin definitely has a point when she says that we are simply not smart enough to perform genetic engineering correctly, and that it is a mistake to continue with such research.
The objective is not to learn new information but to know the process of recalling and eliciting awareness that we already have. Plato emphasizes that true knowledge of virtue is attainable through appropriate ways and methods. Plato states that true belief coupled with rationality is knowledge and a true belief not motivated by a rational account is not knowledge.
Continuing to uphold the sensitivity of matters behind healthcare, this paper will discuss various issues surrounding major depression disorder and wind down with a conclusion elaborating reasons behind the increased cases of major depression in the US despite the elaborate health care plans.
Character of Socrates.
The character of Socrates at the court and during his conversation with Crito is worth discussing and shedding light. This paper aims to compare and contrast in essence the problems of Socrates as discovered by Nietzsche, as seen in the court and as revealed in talks with Crito.
In this essay, I wish to defend atheism on two basic principles: firstly, the problem on the concept of God; and secondly, the morality of existentialistic thinking. Through these principles, I intend to come up with a synthesis of my arguments that will set forth the value of atheism in upholding truth and freedom in society.
The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle and the 19th century British philosopher John Stuart Mill, through their masterpieces the Nicomachean Ethics and Utilitarianism respectively, both have different answers to these perplexing questions, but the most important thing is what we can learn from both philosophers.
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Further, this debate has led to different opinions that to some extend seem confusing. The other available option is to teach evolution theory as the explanation of origins in science classes. For some time in the past, evolution did not appear in the curriculum after its scrapping by court orders after a debate on its eligibility (Ryan and Cooper, 2012).
The second premise is to argue that majority of libertarians deem that we should hold individuals morally responsible. This paper will have two sections. The first will express libertarians’ view to punishment and the second will be to find the most probable objection to this believes.
Plato’s point of view was developed as it contradicted the idea of another philosopher, Socrates. As further explained, “Plato recognizes that the demand for a single account of virtue is not as uncontroversial as it is made to appear in the Socratic dialogues” (Irwin, 148-9).
He argued that human beings are born free; however, when a person is born and starts to cry, and breathe, a person is then tied to an invisible chain that the society had established. In reference to his Discourse on the Origins of Inequality, he stated that freedom was hindered when man became aware of his ability of ownership.
Later sections will focus on utilitarian and libertarian point of view in chosen case, its positives and negatives. These will be later compared to virtue and veil of ignorance concept. Finally, it will be outlined whether any of those theories could be applied in order to make a decision in presented scenario.
It is a realization that many people , both believers and non-believers doubt that the existence of God can be demonstrated or even argued about. Hence the need to ask, “Does God exists?” And is proof for the existence of God necessary? There have emerged various arguments to support the existence of God.
This is the man of moderation, the man of manly character and of wisdom.” ? Plato (Name) (Professor’s name) (Class code) 3 March 2013 The Good Life Plato and Aristotle have largely different views about what the good life is and how it can be obtained, whether in spite of, or due to the fact that Plato was Aristotle’s teacher.
This is simply because one may have been exposed to some of form of religion and subsequently religion may have found root in his or her way of arguing and even speaking. This is why there is a natural inclination for people referring to religion words when people are in pain or angry.
The problem of defining the meaning of life is further compounded by the fact that it is difficult to pin-point the referent of the term life; what does the term life refer to? (Solomon, 44). While contemplating on the meaning of life in his confessions, Leo Tolstoy concluded that life is evil and meaningless (28-29).
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The author explains that “A Vindication of the rights of Women” was published in the year 1792. This book of philosophy is based on the rights of women in society. In Western Europe, married women lost their individual legal identity and single women had minimal protection under the law during the eighteenth century.
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This film portrays control and surveillance over the people in the society, having no idea who really is in control. In this film, Lucas depicts a society where all tasks are controlled by a computer and psychological reactions to conformity leaving many people wondering about their place in the society.
The question at issue here is to figure out who was responsible for the contamination of Love canal, neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York. In this paper, we will try to answer the relevant questions and we will sort out how much damage was done by the company who brought this piece of land.
William James believed that the truth is found in experiences and not in judgments about the world. He gave his most distinctive and resonating lecture, “The Will to Believe” in 1896. It aimed for “a justification of faith, a defense of our right to adopt a believing attitude in religious matters, in spite of the fact that our merely logical intellect may not have been coerced" (Axtell).
How the mind observes things, why doubt is created, how perception and relativity changes with time, what expression looks like, how the mind, body and soul function as a unit, and how a limited perception affect cognition can be explained by Descartes through is argument of judgment and imagination.
Karl Max, a German philosopher, socialist, revolutionary socialist, economist, journalist and a historian, was born in 5th May 1818 and died in 14th march 1883 (Mehring 12). He contributed immensely in the development of socialist political movement and social science with his ideas. During his lifetime, Karl Max published a number of books, for example, ‘The Communist Manifesto in 1848’ and ‘Capital’ in 1867.
The woman acts as a replacement or surrogate mother for another woman who cannot carry the pregnancy until birth or is unable to produce fertile eggs. Surrogate mothering would be classified into two. The first one involves the implantation of the husband’s sperm in the surrogate mother through a process referred to as Artificial Insemination.
Perhaps the most important contribution to the body of knowledge has been the subject of philosophy. Various philosophers have presented their views about a wide range of issues that trouble the society. Increasingly, this knowledge has enabled the human generation to understand and appreciate their origin as well as the nature of their interactions.
Capital punishment or Death Penalty is still retained extensively around the world, especially in the Muslim nations and United States. According to the most recent statistics, 58 countries still retain it while 97 have completely abolished it. Human rights organizations and activists all over the world have been protesting against this punishment and are in favor of abolishing it globally.
These questions have been tied up with the subjectivity of man and how the interpretations of modern realities take shape. It also depends to a great extent on how the conceptions of god have evolved. If one looks at the ethics and morality of the Western civilization, one can see that the Judaeo-Christian frameworks have influenced the frameworks of morality to a great extent.
What do you think comprises reality?
Locke argues that ideas of substances are derived by sensation and reflection. The substances are purely assumed to exist through the sensation of the pattern and qualities of the ideas. Substance, mode and relation, are complex ideas of sensations (Tully 39).
Scientific revolution was a period in history when mathematics, physics, astronomy and biology transformed the nature and social perceptions. This paper seeks to look into the impact of enlightenment on the scientific revolution. The middle ages saw the emergence of scholars who questioned the ideas that had always been accepted.
Allen is successful and effective in leaving the audience reflecting their own lives and the choices they made that are either based on a personal understanding and belief of goodness and badness, and the society’s standard of what decisions are right and wrong.
The right to take life is that of God and therefore many argue that abortion is immoral. Others argue that abortion does not involve taking a human life and it is morally permissible to abort a child. Both sides have their own arguments and it is very difficult to take one side.
When the divorce adversely affected a child, then it would be immoral. Otherwise, if the divorce ended problems like family violence, then divorce is a moral solution and, therefore, legitimate. Warburton, however, exhorted that we must think long-term.
According to Peter Singer, we must not act so as to sacrifice a major interest for a minor interest. Singer is an Australian moral philosopher whose approach and ethical view is from a preference utilitarian perspective. This principle argues for equal consideration of interests.
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These disputes have led to the emergence of some schools of thought challenging the supreme nature of God. Such schools want to challenge the authority of God as the creator of the world and the fact that God has the authority over His creation.
In conclusion, the intriguing questions and explanations brought about, by Sam Harris, are quite evident enough for dismissing freewill as a determinant in human life, and everything happens because they had to happen. In other words, an action happens solely because of the preconditions and predetermining factors.
This essay demonstrates the five categories of philosophy namely the epistemology, reality, freedom, self and ethics. After which personal philosophy is captured from a personal point of view, though in relation to two other philosophers. First, according to philosophy of reality, one, it is noted that it is not enough the way things are because, at times we are deceived.
In “Civil Disobedience”, David Thoreau’s line, ‘Unjust laws exist, shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once?’ cries the naked truth about the existence of laws that were made to protect the people but somehow abused them.
This is what Camus refers to as absurd. According to Camus, people will never find what they are looking forward to finding in life in terms of meaning to it, order, or reasons to it. It can only happen that they can try to seek refuge in the leap of faith through placing hopes in God who is beyond the world or simply conclude that there is no meaning to life.
There are two reasons that James Rachels believes we should be vegetarians. First, the production of meat protein is inefficient and results in the waste of enough protein-rich grain to solve the world’s hunger problems, because the process of turning the grain to meat is 87.5 percent wasteful (184-5).
Baird Callicott (in his paper Traditional American Indian and Western European Attitudes ?Toward Nature: An Overview) seem to argue that there is a causal story to tell between a culture's adoption of ?a certain kind of Christian ethic and that culture's exploitation, misuse, and abuse of the natural ?
Are these people interested in the questions “Who is to be blamed?” or “What is to be done”? The answer to these questions is much more complex. Dostoyevsky’s Underground is full of bitterness. The author is upset and he is critical. In any case, his voice sounds like an alarm for the society of the nineteenth century.
I strongly agree with Hobbes that there is no free will. But I disagree with him that there is a free man. If our choices are always influenced by different factors, then there is nothing free with that. I agree that we are only free in choosing to act upon our choices, as our choices will forever be affected by different things.
From gladiators to chariot racers, they all used some form of herb mixture to enhance their performance in sports by preventing fatigue and injuries. These extracts were made from mushroom extracts or plants seeds that are still used up to date in the making of either liquid or tablet performance enhancements. Sports people have used PEDs for a long time since the Greek and Roman age. During earlier years, coaches provided their sports men with their own recipes that included mixtures of strychnine.