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It is related to the metaphor of the sun and the analogy of the divided line. It refers to make a statement that "those who are without philosophy are like prisoners in the cave. They are in chains and cannot turn round. Behind them is fire, and before them empty cave shut off at the back by the blank wall.
This metaphysical impulse lies at the heart, not only of Western philosophy, but of all Western science, leading physicists to seek a general field theory, or as it has come to be known, "a theory of everything" (Johnson & Lakoff 1999, p. 358). In biology, there is a similar quest for a theory of life.
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The letter details Plato's interaction with the tyrannous ruler of Syracuse, Sicily, Dionysius II. The philosopher had faced great humiliation and greater atrocities at the hands of his prospective pupil and his factious court. Therefore, on his escape back to Athens this ordeal might have influenced him to expound the structure of civil governance, authority, liberty and justice.
The most plausible approach is that of Rene Descartes who views the mind and the body is different. This is because of the reflex theory, which he used to show the ‘mechanism’ of the human body. It also explains why a reasonable man can be detached from his rationale mind and act in passion and later end up regretting his actions.
What is needed is a foundation for morality that is rational and eternal. Philosophers have developed a number of ethical traditions. What these ethical traditions have in common is that each has a basic principle which is used to develop moral rules and which serves as the basis for moral judgments
454d e) Plato is of the opinion that women should also receive the same education as men as they are intellectually equal to them.. .
In Plato's Ideal State, women also have a military role. "And let them share in the toils of war and the defense of their country" (Rep.
Through the work of Saussure, Levi-Strauss, Barthes, Marx and Engels, Derrida, and Lacan, among many other theorists and critics, the relationship between language and ideology has been exposed as a indivisible, reciprocal exchange in which language underlies and sustains ideology, and vice versa.
Georg Simmel and Walter Benjamin were famous and interesting German philosophers who lived at the end of the 19th and in the beginning of the 20th centuries. They both contributed a lot in philosophical and sociological approaches concerning urban culture and the human position in contemporary economical, political and cultural conditions.
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One has to bid farewell to worldly attainments and start a journey to the ultimate truth, presented in the poem as Simorgh. However, it emerges in the end that the higher truth is perceived only through the physical reality of our existence. What the thirty birds try to seek and experience come to them as the essence of all their beings brought together.
A discussion of justice fits into the theme of the papers discussion because of Durkheim definition of justice. Our concern is how law, morality and social solidarity have a relationship to Durkheim's accounts of these. Durkheim's accounts relate to the modern societies.
Factually speaking, he is the forerunner who helped revolutionize the cause of psychology, to be taken as a separate entity other than philosophy. "He was an adamant propagator of the cause of the sensory processes, claiming that human ideation is formulated only as a consequence of the experiences that are undertaken" (Wikipedia).
The philosophy of Social Science provides generally, the ‘Ideal’ state of being. It projects what ‘should’ be, rather than what is, and therefore, sets a higher degree of expectation and equivalent performance to be drawn.
The constraint may be physiological, moral, social , religious and in all the cases it limits the human being.
John Stuart Mill discussed this problem, of liberty-constraint in his essay: "On liberty". But the interest for this concept has appeared since childhood.
This is the core of philosophy and none said it more eloquently than Plato through Socrates.
Being questioned about the process of facing death, Socrates orders away any hysterical grieving people, questioning why people should grieve for someone who has gone beyond one's enemies to the next world, where no enemies exist except those carried within the soul.
Resultantly, they steered their thoughts to make their "simple explanations" more comprehensive, trying to engulf the entire complexity of human existence with effects of surroundings, nature within and without and myriads of other factors. Net result is that they finally land into complex explanations of human behavior or requirements of behavior; the very same place which they tried to avoid in the first instance.
Simone de Beauvoir was one of few philosophers and writers, who got the opportunity to work alongside other famous existentialists philosophers including Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus and Maurice Merleau-Ponty.
The term eugenics refers to the social philosophy that supports intervention into the genetic composition of mankind in order to improve the hereditary qualities (Osborn). In its extreme, racist form, eugenics intended to obliterate all human beings considered "unfit," saving only those who matched to a Nordic label.
On the one hand, there is the school of thought that believes that symbols are "determinable influences inclining persons and groups to action" (Turner 1967: 36). Clearly, this implies that symbols are motivators. With a different perspective, there is the group which maintains that symbols are more of an embodiment of historical meaning, a "system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms.
The adjective "epistemological" applies to whatever involves such study of knowledge; it means "having to do with the theory of knowledge." A closely related adjective is "epistemic"; it means "having to do with knowledge." Knowledge, of course, is not the same as a theory of knowledge, just as a mind is not the same as a theory of the mind, a psychology.
(Peet & Thrift, 1989, p. 16)
In the 20th century there has been an expansion in the number of environmental studies, many feminists were of middle-class and not working-class composition (Castells 1983). The range of these movements escorted the geographers to study and explore all feminist geographers from different aspects.
This clearly means that Descartes believed that if and when he was thinking of his existence, and could conceive of it, he indeed actually existed. Here, he claims his own existence from a first-person point of view, and does not refer to a second or a third person's viewpoint.
In the economic and political definition of property, the distinction between the two is represented by Marxist and capitalist ideologies and private property is a central feature of a capitalist economy. "The distinction between public and private is a ubiquitous feature of everyday life, where the terms are used in multiple and seemingly contradictory ways.
The key function of the household is to satisfy the needs of the man, who is the head of the family and has the right to do anything with his property. Wives, children and different things were perceived as property and were treated accordingly.
The first question Aristotle tries to explain is whether or not the property of citizens should be commonly possessed.
He also uses the change in attitude from the first stanza to the last to emphasize his message.
The poem starts with the normal image one would expect of a beach and a peaceful moonlit night, but quickly moves to an entirely different point of view. By the end of the first stanza the sea is no longer peaceful and calm, but crashing with a "grating roar".
The author believes that the best way to understand what the other person is feeling is to actualize with the feelings of the other person. Hurting another person is a subjective concept. Many people do not even tend to realize even after they have undergone the process of making someone feel unconformable.
Hardcore skeptics argue that it is impossible to assert any claims of knowledge, as one can never truly eliminate the possibility that any sense experience, the vehicle by which we arrive at our judgments about the external world are at best, fallible or at worst, illusory.
The commonality of the dystopian literature, is a sort of Gothic horror, as found in 'Brave New World' by Huxley's and all powerful in Orwell's 'Nineteen Eighty-Four'. 'Enlightenment' is a state, wherein, people concluded that discovery of the natural laws that governed human beings, and adherence to the laws can lead create an orderly, equitable, and prosperous society (Adapted from the Radical Academy, 2003).
This liberty to do anything whatever, even to injure or kill one another if it seemed necessary, must be useless because each person's exercise of his liberty is at odds with everyone else's. Hobbes wrote that, "every man has a right to everything, even to another man's body.
As to whether human embryos are rational beings, that remains to be seen or be proved—as embryos are at a stage where they cannot rationalize. According to natural law, human embryos need not be necessarily shown the same respect as all rational beings.
This notion of Kant has come under scathing criticism from academics and philosophers alike. For example utilitarian philosophers, like David Hume, are of the view that moral standards should comply with the concept of utility.
Freud as he is called as “the father of psychology” has contributed to the field of psychology in a way that it is tough to imagine the state of this field without his ideology & works. While the past has to be different from us, great thinkers are somehow also our contemporaries. They reach out to us over the centuries, what they said and thought still challenges us.
The article defines utmost strength on knowledge and virtue as the most significant in Plato’s Republic. Only those who can ‘see’ will govern as they are not akin to succumb to pressures of corruption and other unbridled pursuits attached to corridors of power. Plato’s is a wise ideal state, indeed.
Chisholm is known for his assertion that all justified beliefs are "directly evident". He is a well-known analytic philosopher. Chisholm's was a most persistent philosopher, he showed his strong commitment to getting all of his arguments right, no matter hard or how long it takes, and no matter the number of times one needs to start all over again.
Commonplace individuals habitually discern pity from cruelty through the governance of the sentiments and the partial absence of cognitive ascendancy. Pity has been generally defined as an outward sign of humaneness or an immediate reaction to negative encounters with actual or imagined adverse, inopportune or ill-fated human being.
Mill maintains that this, "the other party," knows better than to want to and choose to exchange places with a lower being, pig or fool, basing his assertions a number of reasons. First, he says, the party that has a range of higher faculties at their disposal would not trade places with an inferior being, even given that being's range of faculties, it's "fullest allowance of pleasures." (326) Nor would the intelligent, superior party be convinced that the inferior party is better off overall, no matter how happy or how much happier-except, maybe, Mill notes, in the case of a truly miserable human who would do anything to escape his/her sufferingeven if this means lowering him/herself.
In the controversial 1989 essay titled "The End of History", Francis Fukuyama attempted to give Western capitalism's victory over communism a Hegelian interpretation. He argued that the end of history has eliminated all but one intellectual option for the future evolution of the planet.
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Augustine and of William of Okhan (nationalism)
Locke had written A Letter Concerning on Toleration as early as 1666, but it never saw the light during his lifetime. In 1685, when events in France turned his thoughts to the question of toleration, Locke wrote a letter to a Dutch minister, Limborch.
Not only that, but also one author-Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze (commonly referred to as "Wols")-also wrote essential pieces regarding existentialism.
Throughout all of these writings, it will be made obvious that existentialism had a great impact on post-World War II European art.
The diversion from "Reason" to the realm of the fantastic is too elaborate to serve as the reminder of what is good and what has gone astray in the novella. The exotic and often fanciful depiction achieves the effect of what can be simply termed as the everyday prosaic and what is romantic and lofty
The modernist period lies from 1900-1950; a time of great progress in art, architecture, music and literature. Modernism, the genre that was associated with this period, featured radical aesthetics, technical experimentation, self-conscious reflexiveness and scepticism of the real world.
Around 2000 B.C.E., ancient Mesopotamians faced hardships in their daily lives, and the afterlife they envisioned mirrored these hardships. In The Epic of Gilgamesh: Enkidu’s Dream, Enkidu describes a frightening view of life after death to Gilgamesh.
We have essences before we have existences because this all-powerful creator made us with essences. Because atheistic existentialism denies God’s existence, we cannot have an essence. It is not the purpose of existentialism to promote a worldview without God but it also does not promote believing in something that doesn’t exist.
This essay is simply a reflection of Ideas Views and Opinions from two identified Great Thinkers of the Time, whose Works still live to be greatly admired, acknowledged, and recognized in their Full Honour. The study of these two inter-related Philosophers – and Hence, Schools of thought, is paramount for purposes of Study (Research).
The only certain thing in life is death. The subject of death has been widely discussed by sociologists, psychologists, doctors and religious leaders. While they all have contrasting opinions on the subject of death, the bottom line is that death is inevitable. According to Green (2008), the mortality of man has never been questioned by any scientist, doctor or religious personality.
The first is that our lives are shaped by the choices we make and that, as a result of our choices, we can either achieve authentic being or lose ourselves. The second is that there is no meaning in the universe. People try to impose meaning upon the world but it is a false meaning which only distracts them from the reality of nothingness.
The question of evil has been the subject of many discussion and philosophic works. It has always been interesting to see how different philosophers viewed the understanding of evil, and how they applied it to reality. It is difficult to think of any philosopher who has not devoted at least some part of his (her) works to the concept of evil.
He has made immense contribution towards in different areas including, phenomenology, existentialism, hermeneutics, political theory, psychology, theology, and postmodernism. He made significant contribution for the development of ontology, i.e. study of being.
This research aims to evaluate and present an overview of the facility, to demonstrate organizational structures and responsibilities, to exemine ethical dilemmas and standards, to outline implementing and ensuring the ethical code of conduct, to highlight consequences in case of violation of the code of ethics.