Philosophers around the world are highly esteemed due to the amount of knowledge they possess. In their knowledge and wisdom, they also depict themselves as knowing and nobody can dispute that. However, Socrates claim of not knowing when he is perceived to know is a puzzle that he only can explain.
Compatibilism correctly states that we can act freely even if our actions are caused by forces over which we have no control. For example, every person is free whatever he chooses to do. The individual can freely sing his heart out when he or she is happy. The same individual can also freely dance until he or she is too tired to continue dancing.
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Kennedy. Kennedy was assassinated or shot while riding in a presidential motorcade with his wife Jacqueline, John Cannally, Texas governor, and his wife Nellie. Beyond this fact, almost every proceeding detail has been disputed and the assassination of Kennedy remains a matter or subject of strong debate, with a number of competing conspiracy theories being suggested.
Furthermore, other mechanisms like emotions, genetics, and social chains, among others, also define ones way of life. This paper tries to argue these facts on compatibilism in that if other mechanisms define our way of life, then maybe what we think is free will may not be what it seems.
“The Lexus Problem” is a perfect example of a conscious choice contradicted by the will of the Other. As Smith's self is necessarily a part of the system in which the dealer (the Other) is also a part, his selfhood is consciously chosen within his mind, but compromised by an observer outside.
We have to accept the reality that the modern family is no longer clearly defined in the 21st century. Same sex couples, regardless of whether they are legally bestowed the right to marry or not will want to have children and, they will find a way to do that.
This therefore makes philosophy a very important subject that tends to explain the behavior of people and trying to develop justifications for such actions. In most cases people will find philosophy unrealistic and unjustified. The reason to this negative perception towards philosophy is the fact that it tries to defend some of the things that the society may be funding unethical and unrealistic.
It is also essential to note that philosophy immensely relies on critical thinking, reliance on rational arguments and systematic approach of issues (Munro 11). As a result, philosophy can be seen as a basic belief, attitude or concept used by a group or individual.
He believed that the existing system of the allocation of land in Athens was not acceptable. The prevalent system of communal meals also drew a line between the rich and the poor. Aristotle’s Idea of Citizenship and State and the Government Aristotle based his theory of citizenship on the premise that the citizens were the units that composed a bigger entity known as the state.
It also discusses Bradley Manning, a US army soldier who found out he was handling military data that bespoke wanton killing and human rights abuse by the US army, he is also believed to have leaked the collateral murder video to Wikileaks. Most of the documentary is the form interviews and video clips all which are connected for continuity by a background narrator.
Analogy of Being According to Aquinas.
In order to understand Aquinas’s doctrine on analogy of beings, it is crucial for one to first gain meaning of the terms that he uses to explain the doctrine. Firstly, Aquinas enlightens an individual on the existence of a relationship between man and God, which he terms as analogical.
Hence, this significant letter has established how any State law can be inhumane and unjust and it’s the public’s utmost responsibility to condemn it, and protest against it so the governments should take necessary steps to amend the unjust and unethical law.
Laws in the United States allow for abortion subject to limitations and this has elicited opposition from social groups among other stakeholders. It currently remains a controversial debate on whether the current legal position is moral and should be retained or whether it is immoral.
This was a decision that was made by the husband. According to the doctors’ diagnosis, they said that their test proved that she was under a persistent vegetative condition. It is noted that while in her home St Petersburg, she collapsed. The reports about her are known that Terry suffered from cardiac arrest that was the cause of her death.
This paper will shed more light on the life and the philosophy of one and only Aristotle. Aristotle's works shaped centuries of philosophy from Late Antiquity through the Renaissance, and even today continue to be studied with keen, non-antiquarian interest. A prodigious researcher and writer, Aristotle left a great body of work.
In “Virtue and Reason”, John McDowell addresses some ancient accounts of virtue ethics that, despite their age, still retain a fair amount of relevance to modern discourse about morality. The primary focus of his paper is the relationship between knowledge and virtue, which is a meta-ethical question that gets to the heart of how a virtuous agent manages to perceive and react to events virtuously.
This paper seeks to present a thorough analysis of the points made by Researchers like Robert George and Angela Bolte who have been arguing about the actual definition of marriage and whether the word ‘spouse’ is to be used only for a member of opposite sex or same sex partners can also be called spouses legally.
At the same time, there are also several factors that affect the acquisition of knowledge, such as religion and science. According to previous research studies, religion and science differ on several issues concerning life and the world in general. Science contradicts religion and vice versa, as illustrated in the theory of evolution and creation among others.
According to philosophy, current regulation on drugs is unjustified and that some drugs that have been made illegal are treated like alcohol or tobacco. Therefore, instead of criminalizing drugs, they should be made legal. The main argument for making drugs illegal in society is because of the harm inflicted on the second party. The use of drugs among people is not a new phenomenon. It has been part of human life.
One philosopher, theorist, or thinker comes up with an argument only to be contested by other lines of thought. McCloskey is perhaps one of the philosophers who have given the issue of existence of God a deep thought. His arguments on the article “On Being an Atheist” present a wide dimension of thought, discussion, and critique.
Utilitarianism can be further subdivided into two sections which are differentiated on the basis of general application and specific event application (Mill). Act Utilitarianism: - Act utilitarianism states that our duty on any specific occasion is to act in a way that will produce greater total good and better consequences than what any other act will produce.
However, there is a unanimous settlement on the presumption that all humans, regardless of their race, color, names, backgrounds, monetary status etc, are equal before law and hold equal moral status no matter what. However, the question here arises that whether or not, nature holds the same status as that of human or not?
Here the main premise of the two philosophies of Faith is different. One is the insider view and the other is the outsider view. However both talk about the content of Christianity and the process of becoming a Christian. Johaness Climacus’s account of faith is the outsider view.
In particular, the moral theories come into question when they involve decisions pertaining to the right of ending one’s life. In the contemporary society, much debate has been centred on the moral precincts of ‘Suicide Tourism.’ To this end, suicide tourism refers to a type of tourism in which the tourists’ willingly travel to countries that tolerate euthanasia in order to end their lives.
Most feminists share the same opinion that in western culture gender is a very important aspect determining social norms, laws, human relationships, and individual behaviour. The second-wave of feminism examined how male-centred, male-dominated societies marginalised and disenfranchised women, both to identify and abolish gender inequalities (Lederman & Bartsch, 2001).
This is possibly because the legal framework during the time of Plato was not a complete system (Rousseau 23). It is for this point that modern philosopher Thomas Hobbes found loopholes in Plato’s account of the theory. Thomas gave the theory a different interpretation and explained the concept from the viewpoint of a world without rules and regulations.
The author states that in order to understand the potential effects of commodification on democracy, it would be necessary to describe, even in general, the concept of commodification as related to the political and social life. Commodification sets barriers to the communication between the state and the citizens.
Nevertheless, there are certain common acts which are forbidden in the public laws of various societies. These acts are called index crimes. FBI considers index crimes are criminal homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
For instance, the workers in the organization must follow the rules and regulations that are enforced by the leaders. Authority helps to create order and prevent situations of anarchy. In the context of decision making, there must also be clear order and hierarchy of decision making.
Kant made a significant impact on the school of enlightenment by insisting on the primacy of reason above mythology in the assessment of morality. His postulations on morality could be considered as a sum of his rejection of the traditional order that had elevated tradition, custom, and dogma some esteem.
In this paper, we will discuss about Mahavira, the preacher of one of eastern religions and Abraham, the preacher of one of western religions. We will highlight the lives and teachings of the two religious figures analyzing their similarities and differences.
The author argues a lot on the basis of the “blackness of skin” but the pain inflicted on animals is same or almost equal by whites and blacks, i.e. by human beings in general. Also, the suffering of the blacks is not just physical pain, it is also psychological, especially since they are discriminated against many facilities.
It includes the modern account of the mind-body problem. In metaphysics, he proposed arguments for the existence of God showing the essence of matter and the extension of the mind. His major works include The Principles of Philosophy, Rules of Direction of the Mind, Treatise on Man, and Mediations on the First Philosophy among others.
Symposium is the philosophical text written by Plato, in which he has described several concepts of love which were held by ancient Athenians. In this book, Plato has precisely incorporated the conceptions of love in contrast with the multiple distinct idea of love and this idea of Plato was communicated by Socrates.
Happiness is not the ego or the fulfillment of basic animal desires like being able to drink and eat as much as one wants. Happiness is also not synonymous to money nor is there a dictionary meaning for it. Happiness is neither measurable nor definable but it is all about the result of an individual’s appreciation and reflection of things and people in his life, and of the kindness and generosity that these things and people instill in him.
Through all these factors, he developed philosophical theories that explained these aspects. As a result, below are the philosophical teachings and ideas that were put forward by Epicurus: Pleasure and pain - Pleasure and pain were referred to by Epicurus as characteristics of life; and life is made up of all that is good as well as all that is bad.
The Abortion Debate In 1973 The U.S. Supreme Court decided that abortion would be legal. This historic decision did not end the debate. Nearly 40 years later abortion may be the most controversial and emotional issues in the nation. The divide between the ‘pro-life’ and ‘pro-choice’ sides is wide with people decidedly on one side or the other.
It is not feasible to answer with the precision of a mathematical puzzle the excellence of human beings since mathematics begins with common principles and argues to conclusions. Excellence is a quality or talent which is strangely good and so surpasses usual standards and it is also an aimed for standard of performance (Karl, 1996).
The same fate and stand lies with the other side of argument where one considers an event ethically and morally wrong. In precision, moral Universalists claim that anything considered by one to be right will be in the same ideology to many other people despite of basic differences in line of culture religion, regional, and many other levels of differentiation in the communities (Connik).
However, never before has it been so urgent to address the issue of climate change and global warming. It is important to acknowledge that weather variations occur all the time. However, the average weather pattern usually stays the same for a long period of time if it would be left alone.
The author states that the main concept of evolutionary psychology is that the human mind consists of information-processing mechanisms which have evolved through natural selection. These mechanisms are called adaptations that are functionally specialized to deal with problems in certain circumstances and environments.
The first one is God according to him is infinite goodness. The conclusion he draws from this is if God truly exists, evil has no place. Since evil is in its place, therefore, there is no God. This argument looks simple and straightforward to me. How an imperfect and corrupt world emerges out of that infinite goodness of God.
The debate on the existence of God and origination of the materialistic world and living beings has been evolving for ages. Our world has ever been witnessed numerous philosophers, scientists, religious leaders and theologians argue on the subject of existence or non – existence of God.
Determinism refers to the philosophical theory which states that all man’s capability of conscious choice, decision, and intention is invariably determined by circumstances that circumstances that existed before (Maher). This theory is in opposition of the philosophical system of free will or discretion.
Andre and Velasquez argue that utilitarian ethicist may coerce, manipulate or even lie in order to derive the maximum benefit to everyone. In current days, Scientists, diplomats, or business analyst think in terms of benefits and harms while suggesting a ban on certain pesticide, or making an investment in some project, or launching a new drug.
Among various philosophical phrases, Rene Descartes has his famous phrase notified. The famous phrase by Rene Descartes was Cogito ergo Sum which means, I think, therefore I am” (Descartes). The phrase has its philosophical significance because it shows the urge of Rene behind finding the truth of his presence.
Exposing the children to this strand of hepatitis was in no way beneficial to them but the editorials praised the medical professionals for their work and supported their research. People whom criticized the ethics of this research saw no potential gain for using people that were in state institutions or mental hospitals to be exposed to hepatitis for no reason at all rather than to experiment on them.
Some people chose to be moral because they evaluate and identify alternatives that appear to be the best according to the standards and rules. In most cases, a moral choice is based on an evaluation of available alternatives against some rules or standards of moral rightness and desirability (Shafer-Landau 41-44).
I. Wittgenstein’s notion of language game Wittgenstein’s notion of language game was intended to provide answers to two interrelated philosophical issues: Is it possible to arrive at an objective view of the external world given that our individual experiences dictate our worldview, and if so, in what way could this be attained?
The first one involves the vacuum. The Asians believe that a person begins the life in the void status and advances towards the status of abundance. Therefore, nothing has a permanent status but instead, all changes from one position to another. However, the fact is that nothing can possess two statuses at the same time.