Most feminists share the same opinion that in western culture gender is a very important aspect determining social norms, laws, human relationships, and individual behaviour. The second-wave of feminism examined how male-centred, male-dominated societies marginalised and disenfranchised women, both to identify and abolish gender inequalities (Lederman & Bartsch, 2001).
This is possibly because the legal framework during the time of Plato was not a complete system (Rousseau 23). It is for this point that modern philosopher Thomas Hobbes found loopholes in Plato’s account of the theory. Thomas gave the theory a different interpretation and explained the concept from the viewpoint of a world without rules and regulations.
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The author states that in order to understand the potential effects of commodification on democracy, it would be necessary to describe, even in general, the concept of commodification as related to the political and social life. Commodification sets barriers to the communication between the state and the citizens.
Nevertheless, there are certain common acts which are forbidden in the public laws of various societies. These acts are called index crimes. FBI considers index crimes are criminal homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
For instance, the workers in the organization must follow the rules and regulations that are enforced by the leaders. Authority helps to create order and prevent situations of anarchy. In the context of decision making, there must also be clear order and hierarchy of decision making.
Kant made a significant impact on the school of enlightenment by insisting on the primacy of reason above mythology in the assessment of morality. His postulations on morality could be considered as a sum of his rejection of the traditional order that had elevated tradition, custom, and dogma some esteem.
In this paper, we will discuss about Mahavira, the preacher of one of eastern religions and Abraham, the preacher of one of western religions. We will highlight the lives and teachings of the two religious figures analyzing their similarities and differences.
The author argues a lot on the basis of the “blackness of skin” but the pain inflicted on animals is same or almost equal by whites and blacks, i.e. by human beings in general. Also, the suffering of the blacks is not just physical pain, it is also psychological, especially since they are discriminated against many facilities.
It includes the modern account of the mind-body problem. In metaphysics, he proposed arguments for the existence of God showing the essence of matter and the extension of the mind. His major works include The Principles of Philosophy, Rules of Direction of the Mind, Treatise on Man, and Mediations on the First Philosophy among others.
Symposium is the philosophical text written by Plato, in which he has described several concepts of love which were held by ancient Athenians. In this book, Plato has precisely incorporated the conceptions of love in contrast with the multiple distinct idea of love and this idea of Plato was communicated by Socrates.
Happiness is not the ego or the fulfillment of basic animal desires like being able to drink and eat as much as one wants. Happiness is also not synonymous to money nor is there a dictionary meaning for it. Happiness is neither measurable nor definable but it is all about the result of an individual’s appreciation and reflection of things and people in his life, and of the kindness and generosity that these things and people instill in him.
Through all these factors, he developed philosophical theories that explained these aspects. As a result, below are the philosophical teachings and ideas that were put forward by Epicurus: Pleasure and pain - Pleasure and pain were referred to by Epicurus as characteristics of life; and life is made up of all that is good as well as all that is bad.
The Abortion Debate In 1973 The U.S. Supreme Court decided that abortion would be legal. This historic decision did not end the debate. Nearly 40 years later abortion may be the most controversial and emotional issues in the nation. The divide between the ‘pro-life’ and ‘pro-choice’ sides is wide with people decidedly on one side or the other.
It is not feasible to answer with the precision of a mathematical puzzle the excellence of human beings since mathematics begins with common principles and argues to conclusions. Excellence is a quality or talent which is strangely good and so surpasses usual standards and it is also an aimed for standard of performance (Karl, 1996).
The same fate and stand lies with the other side of argument where one considers an event ethically and morally wrong. In precision, moral Universalists claim that anything considered by one to be right will be in the same ideology to many other people despite of basic differences in line of culture religion, regional, and many other levels of differentiation in the communities (Connik).
However, never before has it been so urgent to address the issue of climate change and global warming. It is important to acknowledge that weather variations occur all the time. However, the average weather pattern usually stays the same for a long period of time if it would be left alone.
The author states that the main concept of evolutionary psychology is that the human mind consists of information-processing mechanisms which have evolved through natural selection. These mechanisms are called adaptations that are functionally specialized to deal with problems in certain circumstances and environments.
The first one is God according to him is infinite goodness. The conclusion he draws from this is if God truly exists, evil has no place. Since evil is in its place, therefore, there is no God. This argument looks simple and straightforward to me. How an imperfect and corrupt world emerges out of that infinite goodness of God.
The debate on the existence of God and origination of the materialistic world and living beings has been evolving for ages. Our world has ever been witnessed numerous philosophers, scientists, religious leaders and theologians argue on the subject of existence or non – existence of God.
Determinism refers to the philosophical theory which states that all man’s capability of conscious choice, decision, and intention is invariably determined by circumstances that circumstances that existed before (Maher). This theory is in opposition of the philosophical system of free will or discretion.
Andre and Velasquez argue that utilitarian ethicist may coerce, manipulate or even lie in order to derive the maximum benefit to everyone. In current days, Scientists, diplomats, or business analyst think in terms of benefits and harms while suggesting a ban on certain pesticide, or making an investment in some project, or launching a new drug.
Among various philosophical phrases, Rene Descartes has his famous phrase notified. The famous phrase by Rene Descartes was Cogito ergo Sum which means, I think, therefore I am” (Descartes). The phrase has its philosophical significance because it shows the urge of Rene behind finding the truth of his presence.
Exposing the children to this strand of hepatitis was in no way beneficial to them but the editorials praised the medical professionals for their work and supported their research. People whom criticized the ethics of this research saw no potential gain for using people that were in state institutions or mental hospitals to be exposed to hepatitis for no reason at all rather than to experiment on them.
Some people chose to be moral because they evaluate and identify alternatives that appear to be the best according to the standards and rules. In most cases, a moral choice is based on an evaluation of available alternatives against some rules or standards of moral rightness and desirability (Shafer-Landau 41-44).
I. Wittgenstein’s notion of language game Wittgenstein’s notion of language game was intended to provide answers to two interrelated philosophical issues: Is it possible to arrive at an objective view of the external world given that our individual experiences dictate our worldview, and if so, in what way could this be attained?
The first one involves the vacuum. The Asians believe that a person begins the life in the void status and advances towards the status of abundance. Therefore, nothing has a permanent status but instead, all changes from one position to another. However, the fact is that nothing can possess two statuses at the same time.
Whether Or Not to Use Animals in Medical Research. One pertinent question that faces the modern world is the use of animals for scientific experimentation. Most ideas that have to do with nature especially animals have been formed in the midst of the controversy.
In US, a citizen is allowed to vote, drive, and serve in the military at the age of 18 and the legal age of taking alcohol is 21. The reason for having a voting age is to make sure that those who are eligible to vote have the required capacity to make a decision on how to vote independently with knowledge.
Logic is an aspect that entails two different senses of reasoning, which are effective and deceptive as well as the application of thinking. This implies that logic deals with the concepts of the rationality of implication and demonstration. Logic indicates the causes the arguments and how an individual handles them.
Peter Singer in his book “Practical Ethics” writes, “The utilitarian will judge bad in some circumstances and good in others, depending on its consequences”(3). He has dealt with various burning problems which confront the society on the basis of his utilitarian theories and approaches.
This characterization re-enforces two ideologies that are commonly connected with each other and yet different from one another – democracy and liberalism (Baier 1989). It appears that the factor connecting these two ideologies is the similarity in which the nature of the human person is ascertained.
Thus, religion provides a set of customs, activities and observances that ensures that all members of a given spiritual inclination perform a set of minimal tasks. This culminate in a number of values, norms and mandatory practices. In the past 2,000 years, religion has played a pivotal role in the organization of nations, states and empires.
It requires people to consider if their actions are right or wrong. It also asks people how the components that help them succeed, for example, compassion, integrity, faithfulness, and honesty are relevant in everyday life. Ethics looks at the fundamental principles and basic concepts of human behavior.
This is because happiness does not have to lead to anything else for it to be good. Rather, people are more concerned with the total amount, or entirety, of happiness in their lives, giving rise to the question as to whether happiness is equally as good as meaningfulness.
Affirmative action entails set of policies designed to promote all the individuals, and so it addresses the discrimination concern. Since the late 1800s, forms of affirmative action have been evident in the United States. Fortunately, more extensive law push as well as its enforcement came in the year 1960s after the uprising of the civil rights movement.
n of civilization in human nature.3 What emerged was a renewed critique of concepts of civilization rather than conceptualization of civil society.4 The decision of the Knight v Wedderburn by the Court of Session on 15 January 1778 was described by philosopher John Millar as a genuine product of the liberal concepts emerging as a result of Scottish Enlightenment.5 This paper examines how the Court of Session’s decision in Knight v Wedderburn reflects the ideas of philosophers of the Scottish Enlightenment.
It is arguable that each human being creates. It is a procedure in which an idea, no matter how big or small, is developed from the realm of the imagination to something of a reality. But a distinction along the process is made between what is bad or even average to what is beautiful and therefore sublime.
If the act were passed, it would repeal the Defense of Marriage Act, which currently bans same-sex marriage in the United States. This means that gays and lesbians all over America would be able to marry freely. With this moral issue currently under fire from conservatives, I propose to defend Baldwin’s stance on the basis of its utility.
In describing eros, he discusses that it is the intent to search, the drive for the journey through which the object is attained. Phaedrus, on the other hand, describes eros as drive to take the journey in order to attain honor. Plato defines eros through its erotic nature, but also sides with the idea that it also can be framed within a rational search.
Other operations like amputations require very serious considerations before they can be done. This means that the physician will have to make a thorough analysis of alternative forms of treatment and if the amputation is unavoidable, the patient is made aware of this in advance and in the most understandable way.
The word human is a scientific concept with reference to members of the biological category Homo sapiens. On the other hand, the word person refers to a combination of complex traits by which we define intelligence, self-consciousness and freewill (White 2007).
In reality, the factor of marriage has altered in description and composition a lot of times over the past years. Marriage ceremony these days isn’t at all like what it was a few years ago or centuries ago. The notion of gay marriages is still not widely accepted for the fact that gay pairs are considered as not being normal or natural for that matter.
According to Wager either God exists or God does not exist, and either you believe in God or you do not believe in God (Tabarrok, 123). Pascal further explains that if God exists and you believe in him, then you have an infinite happiness in life, and if God does not exist and you believe in him then your utility level is finite.
In explaining personal identity a number of theories have been advanced to help explain what really consist of a person. In fact, personal identity theory attempts to confront the question of what it consists of to be a human being. Being the most philosophical confrontation theory exploring our existence, personal identity endeavors to provide answers to the questions of who we are, and whether there is a life after death (Baillie 1993).
However, it may be a bit tasking to determine the fate of art and pieces of art must always endeavor to bring out the concept of existence in totality. This essay shall aim at comparing and contrasting the productions of art as well as those of nature. This shall be discussed in relation to Hegel’s ‘Introductory Lectures on Aesthetics’ focusing on the basic need for production of art.
Politics is one such area that benefited greatly from the contributions that were made by Aristotle. In his great book, Politics, he talks about various forms of government and their relative merits and demerits. He talks at length about the roles of the different players who are a part of these political structures and provides examples for them from the ancient world.
The evil exists, therefore, an omnipotent, benevolent and omnipotent entity does not exist either. There are two arguments on the evil or problem of evil. They include logical and evidential arguments. The logical problem of evil This argument purports or tends to show a logical inconsistency between Gods existence and evil existence.
Attempts to its implementation, made primarily in the socialist states failed. Yet, they significantly enriched the theory and practice of democracy (though mostly with negative experience) and had a significant influence on the modern political system. This collectivist democracy is often called identitary.
Therefore, truth is what is true in a man’s own perspective and what he/she finds to be right. Consequently, truth cannot have any unique and absolute form. Rather it varies from man to man; situation to situation; time to time; and even from context to context.
Indeed love seems to be the ultimate thing in almost everything on planet earth. This author has made use of the narrative and writing styles in bringing to full comprehension the myths and facts which are associated with love in general. Indeed many stories on love have caught the attention of myriads of people the world over.