An ideology is something we cannot touch nor taste, yet gives life sensation and flavor. People find stability and support in having something to believe in. The need for direction and assurance perpetrates the flourishing of ideologies towards the betterment of society.
This imperative constituent of knowledge, i.e. the ways and manner in which true belief s can be plausibly converted to 'justifications,' is what epistemology is all about. Foundationalism is a view, a perception that is founded on theory stated above, on how the structures of justification or knowledge is to be developed.
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Wht is surprising is tht in much of the twentieth-century philosophers of mind nd psychologists tended to neglect them--perhps becuse the sheer vriety of phenomen covered by the word "emotion" nd its closest neighbors tends to discourge tidy theory. In recent yers, however, emotions hve once gin become the focus of vigorous interest in philosophy, s well s in other brnches of cognitive science.
Hegel maintained that true understanding can only be attained if one has a comprehension of ‘The Absolute’, and for Hegel the whole of human history and intellect constitutes a progressive self-realization of this Absolute spirit that takes place through ‘dialectic.’
Cartesian dualism focuses on two opposites being able to exist at the same time in space, but coexist peacefully together.
This idea does not make a lot of logical sense at first glance, nevertheless, this was Descartes's legacy. Cartesian dualism exists in the sense that, like the great thinkers Plato and Aristotle who had gone before, he agreed that there should be some uniformity as to how the universe was regulated.
Although one might argue that some elements of these theoretical concepts are obsolete, I attempt to link some of the elements to contemporary politics.
I start with the political theory that Hobbes has written in 1651 in his masterpiece Leviathan in which I identify three basic assumptions that Hobbes uses for his political theory.
The main branches of Philosophy are: Metaphysics, which deals with reality, Epistemology, which deals with knowledge, Ethics, which considers moral values, Politics, which accounts for legal rights and governments, and Aesthetics, which looks in to nature of art.
The author states that currently an Emeritus at the Divinity School, University of Chicago, he has produced many renowned books on religion and theology. His book, Figuring the Sacred is one such book and is a wonderful collection of twenty-one essays. Paul Ricoeur is a European intellectual.
Opponents of the principle declare that utilitarians do not acknowledge the rights of individuals or put forth ideologies that could safeguard the rights of the minority as the aforementioned principles centre mainly on the promotion of the happiness of the 'greatest number.' In determining if the criticisms hurled against the principles of utility are valid, it is essential to examine the concept of utilitarianism and determine if it is incompatible with the existing human rights legislations or the application of these laws.
Positive freedom-based theories point out a very obvious weakness of this position; namely, that one of the activities that most often limits the freedom of some individuals is the expression of freedom in others and as well as within themselves. This is a problem for political theorists because while it seems relatively straightforward to argue in favor of limiting political power in the name of liberty, it is not at all straightforward how to limit individual liberties in the name of, well, individual liberties.
Firstly with regards to the possibility of moral expertise it has been argued that whether or not moral experts do exist, there is a problem of identifying such people because of the obvious problem of "credentials". For example , when a person claims to be able to give moral judgements ,it is very difficult to tell whether or not they should be classified as experts as academic opinion has pointed out the complexity pertaining to such a decision as,
The author states that Hegel’s notions start with the idea that knowledge does not have the ability to explain itself; therefore human beings must trust their senses to understand knowledge. The mind also comes into play here, because the mind processes all senses, and thus becomes the primary focus of knowledge.
No doubt Rousseau's ideal of a self-sovereign people along with the conception of democratic control over social life, informed the moral and political vision of nineteenth and twentieth century democratic mass movements, as well as non-democratic variants thereof.
Thus Kant ventures into a study that tries to supply the principles of moral action as such, or tries to supply the principles for "rational beings in general," which we can interpret in this context as moral subjects. One can found the same tension in Kant's ethical writings.
In such situations small variations in behavior can have dramatic consequences, both positive and negative.
A contextual theory suggests that situations which induce stress for an individual diverts their attention resources and so inhibits optimum cognitive functioning.
Interest in education is more highly concentrated in a special group. Thousands of teachers and thousands of others preparing for the teaching profession constitute this group, and for them a more important interest arises. They must ask themselves not only questions such as those listed, but also many others specific to their profession.
However, Locke, Rousseau and Kant changed our political perspectives, our understanding of the rights and duties of citizens and states and emphasized man’s right and responsibility to take political action, even revolution, when needed.
Writing and Difference wa' fir't publi'hed in 1967, and it contain' collection of e''ay' written by thi' author from 1959 to 1966. Thi' book ha' molded the contemporary French thought and hailed a' the landmark a' for the i''ue' it deal' with. Decon'tructioni'm i' the 'trategy of analy'i', mo't importantly applied to literature, philo'ophy and lingui'tic'.
The reason behind this idea is that Nietzsche believed that it was impossible for a system of morality to be established without breaking the laws it is set up t uphold. While there are many ways to interpret the phrase “Beyond Good and Evil,” the most appropriate and wide-reaching implication of the statement is the terms moral and immoral.
Hegel's dialectical philosophy was the ultimate expression of German Idealism, which was prevalent throughout his lifetime and was connected both to Romanticism and political revolution.
Arguably the most politically and economically impacting philosopher to follow after Hegel, Karl Marx in the 1840s "reproached Hegel for having absolutized into an ideal state the Prussian state" of his era.
As with love and knowledge, the concept, message, meaning, reasons, etc. of existence is also hard to define. There is no universally-accepted definition of the term. The twentieth-century view of existence that dominates states that existence is asserted by statements of first-order logic of the form "for some x Fx", as Wikipedia reports.
Plato was dedicating his writings to someone he had great respect for. His later works do not always feature Socrates though often this was the case. In analyzing Plato's theory of knowledge it is necessary to talk about the myth of the platonic cave.
He explained that when all men lived without a strong power, they was in the state of war, and "such a war as is of every man against every man" (Hobbes, Chapter XIII). Hobbes therefore supposed that a general inclination of all mankind, a perpetual and restless desire of power after power.
Aristotle believed that these were comparable in the sense, that these were arrangements of convenience, wherein additions or subtractions in the notions could be contrived at a theoretical convenience, just so that a link could be established amongst the theoretical construct originally proposed by them.
Nobody knows for certain whether death is the end, or if there is some kind of afterlife. And if there is an afterlife, then what form does it take Will it be everlasting life in paradise as the Christians believe, or a reincarnated existence on earth In a sense, every action undertaken by every human being amounts to mere whistling past the graveyard.
Greek philosophy since the beginning of time has often directed its focus on inquiry and reason. Scholars and philosophers of all times have made great attempts to define justice, Greek philosophers being no exception. This work makes a critical view of Plato's definition of the republic, justice and its (justice's) application in society.
The author states that some philosophers hold the opinion that moral obligation refers to the laws that cannot be advised. Bentham gives the justification of good and bad as ‘pleasure’ and ‘pain’. According to Bentham, nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure.
Marx argues the need for man to explore himself, within himself, Marx is of the opinion that it is futile for man to search here and there as all the answers and solutions lie within him. "Man, who looked for a superhuman being in the fantastic reality of heaven and found nothing there but the reflection of himself, will no longer be disposed to find but the semblance of himself, only an inhuman being, where he seeks and must seek his true reality" (Marx, 1844).
In fact feminist theory has considered the core problems in the legal and political systems, resulting in a discourse on the inherent inequalities of these systems that favor men over women2.
In Patriarchal Societies feminists argue that the body and its traditional assignations of wife and body have become a form of control.
Man is only great when he acts from passions; never irresistible but when he appeals to the imagination.
Alexander Wendt and his constructivism have been appreciated for the freshness of it. No doubt it is assumed to be a conventional theory, but not entirely so, because he criticises nationalist orthodoxy.
Durkheim contributed many theories and ideas that formed the base of development of modern studies in sociology and anthropology. He developed theories and ideas in social facts, division of labor, education, crime, punishment, law, suicide, and religion.
The idea, as well as Jean Baudrillard's theory of The society of the Simulacrum is increasingly important in this age of different philosophic and psychological concepts relating to reality and unreality perception and comprehension. Many people believe that these issues and problems concern only those who are interested in philosophy and psychology, but these people overlook the fact that everybody of use live in society which is very complicated and multifaced, and we learn the world and people around us through photography, video and other images.
Although, the assertion that realities are socially constructed has gained considerable consensus from the academic community, the question of the agency that builds the socially constructed realities is not adequately resolved. The agency or authorship of language, culture, social groups and macro structures in the making of the social construction of reality has been highlighted by theorists from radically different platforms.
Euthanasia has been defined by experts as the intentional cessation of an individual’s life by another person on the grounds of having mercy on the individual for their suffering. Euthanasia is classified as active which involves giving the patient a lethal injection to make death swift and painless.
I seriously value human life and the human values that man abides by. Human life is valuable because, without it, it is impossible to enjoy life and its pleasant consequences. I believe in the basic human values of love, freedom, and sacrifice because these three elements enrich and make one’s life memorable.
The author explains that that abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. Abortion can be natural i.e. it can be the spontaneous expulsion of a fetus, commonly known as a miscarriage. Or it can be induced i.e. the removal of a fetus by medical, surgical, or other ways.
In the medieval period, the idea of virtue found a formal codification in the expression of a set of specific deeds known as chivalry. In the work of Professor H.W.C. Davis (as cited in Prestage, 1928), the definition of chivalry is "that peculiar and often fantastic code of etiquette and morals which was grafted upon feudalism in the eleventh and succeeding centuries" (Prestage, 1928, p.
Her cancer continues to progress.Her physician wants her to try an experimental chemotherapy that has a 15% chance of putting this cancer in remission.She decides not to do this.She feels she would rather die than go through another treatment,one that will remove her from her home and put her in the hospital for treatment.
Bourdieu composition draws heavily upon his extensive fieldwork in Kabylia, Algeria to illustrate his theories regarding the concept of habitus or the principle that links objective structures and practices.
Bourdieu immerses himself in a critical discussion concerning the so-called ingenuity of the human mind that gave rise to a multitude of perspectives trying to account for the diversity in human society and culture.
The central ideology of Plato's philosophical interpretation was primarily based on his use of dialectics, a mode of arguments concerning the profound reflections of nature of reality as well as using cognitive optimism, a principle believing in the ability of the human mind in order to accomplish truth and to use this truth for fulfilling the objective predominantly based on rational choice to act on human affairs set with virtuous ordering.
A teacher has a distinctive role in education. I am sure, a teacher possesses such treasures that can never be taken away from one’s person – the treasures of knowledge. These treasures are such that they always keep on growing. A teacher is the one who is primarily a ‘Giver’ giving to pupils and seldom even expecting anything in return.
The author states that Mesopotamian attitude towards death was quite in contrast to that of the Egyptians. The Mesopotamians believed in the grim and dour hypothesis that sickness and death were a direct consequence of sins committed. They gave no leeway to this notion as any hope of salvation by a divine existence after death was lost on this cohort.
There is, however, no generally accepted theory of modernization.
An excellent critique of modernization theory and studies has been offered by Dean Tipps, and his comments are worth examining in some detail. Tipps points out that the concept "modernization" is relatively new, and that those who theorize about it have been largely influenced by evolutionary and structural-functionalist perspectives:
He was later to be the only person to rival Plato in terms of influence on Western philosophy. Human nature was a subject that made both of them interested a lot and this essay will explore what they felt about this subject.
Though there seems to be a lot of similar ground in both their thoughts yet Aristotle later markedly differed from the views of his mentor.
Therefore we sometimes ought to believe proofs about a miracle we have a reliable witness. The significance of the revelation and the unbelievable nature of the miracle seem to proof one another.
Nicholas Wolterstorff says on this topic, that Locke "assumes that if we do as we ought and subject the testimony of the gospel writers to the same evidential tests to which we subject any other testimony .
(The most fascinating area of philosophy that questions about the existence of God-the standard arguments whether there is a God through the point of miracles-Hume's point of view on miracles-Pascal's wager versus Hume's theory that religious belief depends on psychological and sociological factors, Ontological argument vs.
Many scholars have attempted to create schemes classifying the different branches and threads of realist thought that have emerged, while others have introduced a wealth of new terminology. In this paper we therefore discuss some of the theories of realism with a critical examination into the views of Morgenthau, Waltz, Mearsheimer etc1.
While the use of requirement analysis is very important is that it identifies the main components of a system or a process, who are generally referred to as the stakeholders, and it charts the course of their contradicting activities or actions as they work together to reach a final solution on an issue.
In 412 a 14 Aristotle gives two answers to the question of what makes something to be perceived as alive. He states that by “life’ I mean self-nourishment, growth, and decay”. And the other formal cause is the soul which transforms things into being alive. These characteristics according to Aristotle identify the presence of life.
But still, the "marriage cure" is not invention of our time, it has been used for centuries as a "cure" to eliminate poverty.
Our epoch differs greatly from those two centuries ago. Our values and world perception has less in common with 17th or 19th century life philisophy, but the question of marriage is still a topical one.