Nobody knows for certain whether death is the end, or if there is some kind of afterlife. And if there is an afterlife, then what form does it take Will it be everlasting life in paradise as the Christians believe, or a reincarnated existence on earth In a sense, every action undertaken by every human being amounts to mere whistling past the graveyard.
Greek philosophy since the beginning of time has often directed its focus on inquiry and reason. Scholars and philosophers of all times have made great attempts to define justice, Greek philosophers being no exception. This work makes a critical view of Plato's definition of the republic, justice and its (justice's) application in society.
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The author states that some philosophers hold the opinion that moral obligation refers to the laws that cannot be advised. Bentham gives the justification of good and bad as ‘pleasure’ and ‘pain’. According to Bentham, nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure.
Marx argues the need for man to explore himself, within himself, Marx is of the opinion that it is futile for man to search here and there as all the answers and solutions lie within him. "Man, who looked for a superhuman being in the fantastic reality of heaven and found nothing there but the reflection of himself, will no longer be disposed to find but the semblance of himself, only an inhuman being, where he seeks and must seek his true reality" (Marx, 1844).
In fact feminist theory has considered the core problems in the legal and political systems, resulting in a discourse on the inherent inequalities of these systems that favor men over women2.
In Patriarchal Societies feminists argue that the body and its traditional assignations of wife and body have become a form of control.
Man is only great when he acts from passions; never irresistible but when he appeals to the imagination.
Alexander Wendt and his constructivism have been appreciated for the freshness of it. No doubt it is assumed to be a conventional theory, but not entirely so, because he criticises nationalist orthodoxy.
Durkheim contributed many theories and ideas that formed the base of development of modern studies in sociology and anthropology. He developed theories and ideas in social facts, division of labor, education, crime, punishment, law, suicide, and religion.
The idea, as well as Jean Baudrillard's theory of The society of the Simulacrum is increasingly important in this age of different philosophic and psychological concepts relating to reality and unreality perception and comprehension. Many people believe that these issues and problems concern only those who are interested in philosophy and psychology, but these people overlook the fact that everybody of use live in society which is very complicated and multifaced, and we learn the world and people around us through photography, video and other images.
Although, the assertion that realities are socially constructed has gained considerable consensus from the academic community, the question of the agency that builds the socially constructed realities is not adequately resolved. The agency or authorship of language, culture, social groups and macro structures in the making of the social construction of reality has been highlighted by theorists from radically different platforms.
Euthanasia has been defined by experts as the intentional cessation of an individual’s life by another person on the grounds of having mercy on the individual for their suffering. Euthanasia is classified as active which involves giving the patient a lethal injection to make death swift and painless.
I seriously value human life and the human values that man abides by. Human life is valuable because, without it, it is impossible to enjoy life and its pleasant consequences. I believe in the basic human values of love, freedom, and sacrifice because these three elements enrich and make one’s life memorable.
The author explains that that abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. Abortion can be natural i.e. it can be the spontaneous expulsion of a fetus, commonly known as a miscarriage. Or it can be induced i.e. the removal of a fetus by medical, surgical, or other ways.
In the medieval period, the idea of virtue found a formal codification in the expression of a set of specific deeds known as chivalry. In the work of Professor H.W.C. Davis (as cited in Prestage, 1928), the definition of chivalry is "that peculiar and often fantastic code of etiquette and morals which was grafted upon feudalism in the eleventh and succeeding centuries" (Prestage, 1928, p.
Her cancer continues to progress.Her physician wants her to try an experimental chemotherapy that has a 15% chance of putting this cancer in remission.She decides not to do this.She feels she would rather die than go through another treatment,one that will remove her from her home and put her in the hospital for treatment.
Bourdieu composition draws heavily upon his extensive fieldwork in Kabylia, Algeria to illustrate his theories regarding the concept of habitus or the principle that links objective structures and practices.
Bourdieu immerses himself in a critical discussion concerning the so-called ingenuity of the human mind that gave rise to a multitude of perspectives trying to account for the diversity in human society and culture.
The central ideology of Plato's philosophical interpretation was primarily based on his use of dialectics, a mode of arguments concerning the profound reflections of nature of reality as well as using cognitive optimism, a principle believing in the ability of the human mind in order to accomplish truth and to use this truth for fulfilling the objective predominantly based on rational choice to act on human affairs set with virtuous ordering.
A teacher has a distinctive role in education. I am sure, a teacher possesses such treasures that can never be taken away from one’s person – the treasures of knowledge. These treasures are such that they always keep on growing. A teacher is the one who is primarily a ‘Giver’ giving to pupils and seldom even expecting anything in return.
There is, however, no generally accepted theory of modernization.
An excellent critique of modernization theory and studies has been offered by Dean Tipps, and his comments are worth examining in some detail. Tipps points out that the concept "modernization" is relatively new, and that those who theorize about it have been largely influenced by evolutionary and structural-functionalist perspectives:
He was later to be the only person to rival Plato in terms of influence on Western philosophy. Human nature was a subject that made both of them interested a lot and this essay will explore what they felt about this subject.
Though there seems to be a lot of similar ground in both their thoughts yet Aristotle later markedly differed from the views of his mentor.
Therefore we sometimes ought to believe proofs about a miracle we have a reliable witness. The significance of the revelation and the unbelievable nature of the miracle seem to proof one another.
Nicholas Wolterstorff says on this topic, that Locke "assumes that if we do as we ought and subject the testimony of the gospel writers to the same evidential tests to which we subject any other testimony .
(The most fascinating area of philosophy that questions about the existence of God-the standard arguments whether there is a God through the point of miracles-Hume's point of view on miracles-Pascal's wager versus Hume's theory that religious belief depends on psychological and sociological factors, Ontological argument vs.
Many scholars have attempted to create schemes classifying the different branches and threads of realist thought that have emerged, while others have introduced a wealth of new terminology. In this paper we therefore discuss some of the theories of realism with a critical examination into the views of Morgenthau, Waltz, Mearsheimer etc1.
While the use of requirement analysis is very important is that it identifies the main components of a system or a process, who are generally referred to as the stakeholders, and it charts the course of their contradicting activities or actions as they work together to reach a final solution on an issue.
In 412 a 14 Aristotle gives two answers to the question of what makes something to be perceived as alive. He states that by “life’ I mean self-nourishment, growth, and decay”. And the other formal cause is the soul which transforms things into being alive. These characteristics according to Aristotle identify the presence of life.
But still, the "marriage cure" is not invention of our time, it has been used for centuries as a "cure" to eliminate poverty.
Our epoch differs greatly from those two centuries ago. Our values and world perception has less in common with 17th or 19th century life philisophy, but the question of marriage is still a topical one.
This paper attempts to highlight Skinner's central theme regarding free will and determinism and arguments for and against by different theorists. First a brief summary of the story will be presented followed by an analysis of Skinner's arguments concerning the connection between Utopia, free will and determination.
People should know what they actually want and believe and this will help them a lot in choosing between right and wrong or good and bad.
Ethics is a branch of philosophy and it includes the good demeanor, behavior and life. It not only comprises of the common conception of analyzing right and wrong, but also it gives the concept of "the good life", a life which is worth living and pleasing.
Primitive practices carried down traditionally enforced draconian measures including capital punishments on mere whims and fancies of the ruling class.
New winds of changes were blowing across the continent of Europe in particular in the wake of the French Revolution and colonization, when scientific discoveries and explorations into unknown regions of the earth yielded new information, mineral and material wealth, and stimulated fresh reflections and insights into social practices and evaluative thinking.
Like philosophy enlightens us to the path of knowledge, so does humor. Aptly noted by Critchley 2002:
The philosopher asks you to be sceptical about all sorts of things you would ordinarily take for granted, like the reality of things in the world or whether the people around you are actually human or really robots.
John Bowlby is the pioneer in the field of study on the phenomenon of attachment in human beings. The significance of study of patterns of attachment in understanding our socio-biological behavior is being widely recognized by many recent studies.
Human beings develop closeness with people in early childhood and are secure in the presence of people to whom they are attached.
That the universe is designed by an 'intelligent creator' as it exhibits equilibrium and order has prevailed for many centuries as the most robust argument in defense of theism in the philosophical realm of old. This is also referred to as the classic Design Argument.
Without the non-material attributes necessary to achieve free thought it is apparent that free agency is a chimera.
The misdeeds we commit are a collection of contradictions that relegate free agency to the realm of wishful thinking. If we possessed free will we would not be prone to addiction, greed, and the myriad of distasteful arenas we find ourselves in.
For an individual, the satisfaction of a good life comes mostly from the relationship with society and the individuals who form it. Life becomes more fruitful if an individual applies moral principles in each particular situation, thus learning how to skillfully master some general principles and sharpen his/her sense of practicality.
Diversity entails respect and acceptance of the individual differences. Accordiong to Bazron, Dennis and Isaacs (1989), cultural competence is the process that allows individuals, systems and institutions to respond effectively and respectively to individuals regardless of culture, language, class, race, ethnic background, religion, sexual orientation or gender (Marx & Byrnes, 2012).
Rousseau, the prince among thinkers, thought that the collective participation of the people is necessary for creating the law of the state.
He thought that to be a good citizen the person has to conduct many democratic and participatory tasks and law creation is one of them. “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains” he said (181) .
Pictures and images are suitable to those only who lack more sophisticated expressions (Falzon 3). Plato has stated in Plato's Cave that when inside the cave, shadows on the wall are taken as real by persons not enlightened but the truth is that one need to come out in the sunlight to see reality.
Ethics can be defined as a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the study of what is morally right and wrong, good and bad. Then what is Morality "Morality is concerned to say as to how we should act and the kind of person we should become" (Source: Ethics - What is it Opening lecture).
Qualitative research looks for answers to naturally occurring social phenomenon and presents facts as they appear, with less chance of manipulation of the experiment. Data is collected through direct interaction with respondents to gain a good understanding of their perspectives. This research paradigm was developed when researchers struggled with weaknesses of quantitative research.
Kenneth Waltz, in his article Neo Realism outlined in his book Theory of International Politics (1979) argues that "the world exists in a state of perpetual international anarchy (the lack of an effective central authority over states) as no state can fully trust any other state or completely understand their policies." Every state in the world seems to be having a hidden agenda of its own, with its national and international priorities to meet and this becomes the basis of mutual suspicion.
The mind-body problem is the problem of determining the relationship between the human body and its mind. Are our minds something different from our physical bodies Suppose we think that the mind is a substance of some sort -- a mental substance. We might still ask: Is there some way to explain what the mind, a mental substance, is, in terms of physical substance Or will we maintain that the mind is something totally different from physical bodies, and that we cannot explain what the one is in terms of the other at all
These two written works-plus his History of Florence commissioned by the Medici family-were published posthumously in 1531. After the ousting and execution of Savonarola, the Great Council elected Machiavelli as the second chancellor of the Republic of Florence in June of 1498.
The author of the paper states that Lutheranism and Calvinism differed with regard to the concept of predestination, morality and discipline, church organization, etc. Significantly, Calvinism particularly appealed to certain groups and the people of the cities welcomed both Lutheranism and Calvinism.
While the ideas of Marxism have been consequently developed and enhanced by the events in history of the working class itself, the basic conceptions however remain unshaken, providing a firm groundwork for today's Labour Movement. There have not been any superior, more truthful or scientific theories produced before and since the lifetime of Marx and Engels that could explain the movement of the society and the role of the working class in the said movement.
In addition rhetoric promotes intellectual development as it induces to put ideas in order and state them eloquently and intelligibly. So it is not surprising that rhetoric is studied in some schools and institutes.
The time of Ancient Greece and Rome is especially interesting for a researcher as it was the time of the beginning of rhetoric and philosophy (these two disciplines were tightly connected in Greece).
The author states that Descartes proves to us that we exist because we think. He helps us unlearn and rebuilds the foundations of all our thoughts and ideas as we have them today. He proves that nature is our teacher because it tells us what is right and wrong. Our intellect, understanding, and free will help us act upon what we have learned.
As we know from our Sociology classes, social inequality is a direct result of social stratification. In the class system, social inequality and stratification depend on one's personal success. In class societies we have a tendency to looking at person's achievements what is called meritocracy or social stratification, which depends upon individual merit.
In order to grasp the core arguments of morality and virtue, we must first understand why they are so difficult to define for all of humanity, since so many different philosophies and religions exist today.
He made significant contribution for the development of ontology, i.e. study of being. He practiced phenomenological analysis of human existence in an attempt to access being, with reference to the temporal and historical character. He also discussed the nihilism of modern technology, and its generated society and tried to correlate the thoughts and perspectives of the western philosophical tradition with the question of being.
The key is to understand the partial evils, not as isolated evils in themselves, but as part of the accord that balances everything that exists. Man’s task is to explore and understand the universal harmony that surrounds him, as well as the internal harmony that exists within his nature and purpose.
From this point, let us take a step further and advance into a new dimension. This is the place where most words originate. It is the human mind. The mind begins in the brain. Let us for a moment think about the mind-brain relationship, and we have an idea of how powerful words can be.