Simmel, writing years after Marx, echoed much of the Marxist themes in his own works and conducted many philosophically and psychologically oriented investigations based on Marx's propositions. For this paper I would be comparing Marx's concept of "commodity fetishism" to Simmel's "autonomy of objective culture."
This paper will focus on the strategies used for justifying moral theories, as this is generally where the theorists go their separate ways in constructing the supreme principle of morality. As such each theory may yield different answers to the three questions raised under morality: 1) Authoritative question: Why ought I be moral 2) Substantive question: Which interest ought I to take favourable account of 3) Distributive question: Whose interest ought I to take favourable account of
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Through this text, Plato exhibits the ultimate significance of Socrates as a teacher by whom he was able to unravel the perils of human psyche and politics which had been evident in Socrates’ mock trial by the jury to which the irony of his apologetic articulation was dedicated (T&G West, 16).
He became famous with his article on the 'Progress of the Arts and Sciences' in which he disputed against progress as it disconnected men from their normal state.
Rousseau believed the Social Contract as the fundamental law of society. Liberty is submission to the law the people have accepted, and equality means all are equally dependent on society and not on any other individual.
This essay discusses the characteristics of the philosopher's society and culture are nationalism, capitalism, democracy, socialism, conservatism, liberalism, feminism, and bureaucracy (European Thought and Culture in the 19th Century, online). Nationalism is the belief that groups of people are bound together by territorial, cultural and ethnic links.
New interpretations of Biblical studies proposed by Irigaray are of vital importance for contemporary society, which seldom takes into consideration gender when analyzing philosophy of religion.
Luce Irigaray is far less concerned with giving certain definitions to the divine, describing its functions or features, than with proving logical necessity for the existence of the divine.
In George Campbell's opinion, "Rhetoric is that art or talent by which discourse is adapted to its end. The four ends of discourse are to enlighten the understanding, please the imagination, move the passion, and influence the will".3
As for me, rhetoric is verbalization of all power of fascination, which serves in most cases for persuasion or mutual understanding.
What Kant believes is the significance of good will in universalism so that every individual act should be performed not as a duty, but as a moral deed in accordance with the universal moral law that the autonomous human being freely gives itself
There is the sagacity of the loss of simplicity, legitimacy and spontaneity. The directive of the individual within a bureaucratic and administered world proscribes genuine feeling and sentiment. The procedure of civilization thereby entails the taming of savage feeling.
The article seems to suggest that we are responsible for the woes that have befallen the poor and the refugees in the camps. Peter Singer is therefore suggesting that it should be our responsibility and an obligation to get those entangled in unfortunate circumstances out of it (Singer, 1972).
Rene Descartes was a major philosopher of the seventeenth century, belonging to the school of continental rationalism. Descartes sets out in his Discourse on Method to doubt all that could be doubted, albeit not to end up believing in nothing, but rather so that he would believe in only that which really was true.
There are many cases of people who, although apparently happy, as they have everything they need and everything the others strive for, are in fact very unhappy – be that they cannot see what they have in their rush to get more – which has now become a habit – or because now they realize their efforts didn’t bring happiness.
Miller shows that creation, at the heart of Western religion, feels the danger from the belief in evolution as it has the potential to undermine the basis of the Bible. Secondly, Miller points to the outwardly hostile environment that evolution advocates such as Daniel C. Dennett creates.
Soft determinism philosophers' view is that free will and moral responsibility can be combined with determinism. Libertarianists suppose that that all our actions, decisions and their results depend on us, they are result of rational agency, but not of chance or luck.
The object of this paper is not to find facts but to explore human's relationships with animals and how humans take on animalist identities as descriptors of perceived behaviour, value systems, strengths or weaknesses.
You can hear references to animals and their perceived behaviours such as in the old adage "March roars in like a lion and goes out like a lamb".
The conclusion states that it is difficult to imagine what Hume could hope to gain by flattering the religious authorities at this late date. This point becomes stronger when we consider that during the last decade of his life--in which he lived comfortably as a man of letters -he did not significantly alter his writings on this topic.
Jean-Paul Sartre is a well known philosopher who has one of the most well known opinions in regards to both of these subjects, and that is that he thinks that existentialism is actually humanism in itself. This belief of his has been debated on and battled by others, and in order to be able to come to a proper and informed conclusion in regards to any of this, we have to discuss what existentialism and humanism are, as well as what Sartre's thinking is in regards to this matter, and by doing this we will be able to become incredibly more critically understanding of this subject matter overall.
There are several elements of comparison between these two famous places, though they share dissimilarities of various types. For example, one finds that, in Utopia, people have restraints but they are free to speak to each other. Similarly, prisoners within the Eastern State Penitentiary are not allowed to have any human contact.
It looks at modern problems of Realism presented by a re-emergence of liberalism, the emergence of globalisation and its apparent incompatibility with democracy. The discussion ultimately rejects many of the criticisms, as they do not serve to refute these core assumptions.
When we are denied these an emotional hole remains which we endeavour to fulfil through other non-relational or relational means, which could be dysfunctional. Sometimes these coping mechanisms could remain harmless and not cause substantial damage to the person's lifestyle.
According to the paper, the care ethics is seen as a feminine ethics which is related to the maternity, parental care and the relationship between a woman and her child. But the care ethics is much more than concentrating just on one subject. This makes one know the care ethics as much more than it seems to be.
What Survives After Death. Thoughts on life after death are generally divided into two differing opinions: skeptic or believer. The former insist that people cease to exist once they die and that there is nothing past the material realm. The latter, though, believe that people take on another form after death and their souls continue to exist through reincarnation.
This essay analyzes the views of two philosophical standings of the ancient India held by Jainism and Carvaka to identify the similarities and differences between the two in regards to ethics. In addition, compatibility of the two viewpoints will be assessed to identify if the philosophical standings can be viewed.
Epicurus says that “philosophy” means “the seeking of wisdom”. And he argues that studying philosophy is “to care for the well-being of the soul” and both young and old can do anything for their wellbeing. He also says that since both young and old can seek wisdom and since everyone is either young or old, everyone is capable of seeking wisdom.
It is speculated that his mother was related to the conqueror of Montcalm, Canada, General Wolfe. George Berkeley was educated at Kilkenny School and later joined Trinity College, where he was able to attain his Bachelors and Masters degrees in divinity. After achieving his education to that level, he became an Irish Bishop, he was later ordained as an Anglican priest in 1710.
What Makes Right Acts Right and Wrong Acts Wrong?
Mug shots have been a subject of discussion, regarding their appropriateness or inappropriateness in being published by sites that require payment to pull them down. While the legal argument is that mug shots are public documents that are within the public domain, and that the mug shot sites does no wrong in republishing them, the ethical question that comes to the fore is whether asking for payment to remove the mug shot of an individual from a mug shot site is right or wrong (Segal, n.p.).
In the hopes of discussing this issue to a more complete degree, the following analysis will consider the article by J. David Velleman entitled, “Against the Right to Die”. Due to the fact that many individuals that have discussed and argued for or against physician assisted suicide and/or euthanasia have come down relatively firmly on one side or the other, Velleman’s piece offers the reader with a welcomed relief to the black and white morality that oftentimes defines the tenor of such analyses.
The fact of the matter is that Jason Warner and deMarco deCiccio are a gay couple who have chosen to share their ministry, their musical talents, and their faith alongside their openly homosexual lifestyle. In such a manner the duo notes that they are able to reach formerly unreached members of the LGBT community (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered).
The works of Plato have been published in a number of ways. His works have been widely referenced and so many other concepts and philosophies have been based on the works of Plato. It can be said that each culture is based on some distant philosophy which is widely adopted by the people and ultimately turns into the values and traditions of the people.
It means that the body will decompose at death, but the soul is incapable of doing so. 2. The Katha Upanishad, according to Yama's teaching, is the passenger of the chariot, which is the body (1.3.3-4). This is similar to the ideas found in Phaedrus or Parmenides.
Inequality is either acquired in the course of one’s life or one is born already unequal to others (Brumfitt 46). When Neiman offers his insight on the course of life, he generally states that life offers opportunities to every one and it is up to the individuals to claim their share of what life offers.
This concept provides a series of social discussions within the film, the first of which is the idea of eugenics in which undesirable traits are genetically eliminated in favor of more desirable traits. In addition, the nature of ‘perfected’ human existence is challenged through a discussion that balances that natural superiority with the superiority of the human spirit to overcome challenges of a physical and social nature.
In addition, there are two forms of the soul, the embodied and the disembodied soul. While the embodied soul was viewed immortal, the disembodied soul was considered simple (Republic 608c-612a). Based on Socrates’ view then justice is related to the three states of the soul which had been corresponded to beliefs, emotions and desires.
Among the many important distinctions concerning the senses and reason, one of the more significant for his moral theory is that the senses interpret reality first. We are born sensing the world before we are reasoning about it, and likewise in the process of immediate perception.
The impact of this ease is not limited to leisure, tourism and educational fields but the businesses are also greatly affected by this change. The organizations have experienced both positive and negative effects of globalization. The businesses, educational institutes, and other concerned bodies are incorporating these changes brought in as a result of globalization within their policies and regulatory systems.
Ethics is widely accepted as a branch of philosophy that concentrates on query of morality all the way through a group of behavioral strategies and guidelines. Generally, difference in material backgrounds such as personality, society, economic backgrounds, culture, language and religion often make the atmosphere unpredictable and undergoes some unnecessary conflicts among the people.
Within this concept of happiness, Aristotle posited that such virtue is achieved by following the rule of the Golden Mean. According to Aristotle’s concept of the Golden Mean one may be able to justify a proper code of conduct. For example a warrior must seek courage, which is the mean between being cowardly and reckless, in order to proceed with his or her duties.
Where Locke takes a more liberal perspective, inviting the ideal that people can function by accepting a ruling authority for the greater good, Hobbes takes a similar yet opposing stance that while a ruling authority is key in the success of protecting the human race, people cannot accept such influence without giving up certain inalienable rights including their own personal sovereignty.
Scientific revolution has necessitated biological advancements, which can enhance the operations of the human species with a view to maximizing on their current capacity (Buchanan 42). Along with these biomedical revolutions arise ethical questions on whether the enhancements will be positive or negative to the human species.
Abortion: Right or Wrong? Abortion is still much debated, even if timely abortion has been legalized in some advanced countries like the United States. Meanwhile, major religious institutions, including Christian Churches, strongly oppose abortion along the theological reason that fetuses have souls which need saving and caring.
It was even doubted greatly by skeptic scientists. The life after death seems to be hard to be proven. It may or may not exist. Some naturalists may just say that life will just cease once biological death approaches and consciousness will fade too.
He always believed in the notion that a leader should be able to do anything in order to protect state protocol. This is inclusive of corruption and other forms of injustices as long as his kingdom remains controlled effectively. He also argues that injustices shaped the perception of people towards respect of authority.
Michelle was grief-stricken when he broke up with her not only because she told me she loved him but also because she was pregnant with his baby. They broke up because of some misunderstanding but I thought it was because of their constant fights although they were in public.
Alfred Whitehead once noted, “What is morality in any given time and place? It is what the majority then and there happen to like and immorality is what they dislike” (Feldman 2012). For purposes of this brief response, this author will seek to provide a distance from the point of view that morality is all defined within the context of the times or unique circumstances and/or situations; i.e.
it is thus one of the earliest works to articulate feminist sentiments. The work looks at the different aspects of women’s life that leads to a second-class position in society. The work seeks to look at those aspects of social life that form the basis of oppression for women and the reason why women are considered to be less worthy than their male counterparts.
Individualism entails a number of issues including individual’s freedom of choice, self-reliance, autonomy, and self-responsibility, which are virtues that uniquely identifies an individual from collectivism. The most important virtue of individualism is self-reliance that Emerson extensively explains in details.
A common definition of psychological time entails varying forms of the subject. Each form of time corresponds to dissimilar psychological mechanisms. Humans are subject to time distortions under emotional effects. In my opinion, the usefulness of social interaction is dependant on people’s ability to synchronize themselves with others.
First Dworkin admits the dependence of a person on psychoactive drugs is to protect and shield oneself from the imponderable and unpredictability. He asserts that if happiness is serotonin and serotonin is happiness then it is true to say that these drugs guarantee happiness because one can take psychopathic drugs for many years.
Main objective behind elucidating the topic under consideration includes the exploration of the reasons behind the presentation of various characters in a stereotyped way in the media programs meant for the children in a traditional and conventional way, in the light of the personal views the writers, promoters and directors maintain with regard to the people belonging to the divergent ethnic, racial, regional and religious groups, and communities, as well as the members of both the genders at large.