It is an illegal secret agreement concluded between competitors to fix prices, restrict supply and/or divide up markets. The agreement may take a wide variety of forms but often relates to sales prices or increases in such prices, restrictions on sales or production capacities, sharing out of product or geographic markets or customers.
The basic demand of the inhabitants of a democracy from its constitution, social governance and administration is to obtain the scope for living a peaceful life, respect for the basic rights and being protected from any form of social arbitrariness. Criminality is essentially a social vice, not an isolated process.
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The author is an assistant professor of criminology at the University of Ottawa in Canada and a lecturer in criminology at Carlton University also in Canada. She is the founder of ACCESO INTERNATIONAL which seeks to provide educational opportunities to students in economically disadvantaged countries.
This research will begin with the statement that energy from waste is the process of creating energy by incinerating waste. This energy may be in the form of electricity or heat. As the plant involves combustion of solid or liquid fuels, the incineration process produces emissions which may be in the form of acid gases, particulates, dioxins or ash residues.
There are numerous pecuniary benefits for crimes which can explain about thirty percent of the overall effect of crime in the cities. However, this is much less than crimes connected with certain other urban areas which involve some nonpecuniary crimes. These nonpecuniary crimes include assault or rape.
The lack of clarity and dependency on ad hoc judicial decisions is undesirable in addressing the right to privacy and the interpretation of Article 8 has been disappointing in clarifying the legal parameters of privacy protection in the UK. On the other hand, the practicability of implementing a separate law of privacy is also questionable.
The author of the paper states that Denning LJ’s decision in Oscar Chess v Williams was focused on the relevant criteria for determining whether a representation constituted a warranty that was enforceable under contract law. Directly related to this was the consideration of the appropriate test for determining the contractual intent of the parties.
This paper deems to discuss the statement: "When the Labour Government came to power 12 years ago workers had no right to minimum pay, no right to paid leave and the imbalance between work and family life meant that workers often had to choose one or the other at a cost to themselves and the economy ..... We had a mandate and a mission to change that and we did."
The World Wide Web denotes its name exactly, a world all on its own. The digital media that is the internet brought a revolution to our culture and society. Access to the internet empowers any individual in ways that would have just been a dream decades ago. It has equipped people with the ability to transform the convergence of information.
The much-vaunted set of human rights protection collectively known as the European Human Rights Convention (Convention hereafter) originated in this part of the world and is presently governing human rights protection, the existence of two contending powerful supranational organisations is muddling the European landscape.
Admittedly, the Constitution forms a framework for the functioning of the Federal government and outlines the nature of alliances that the Federal government must form with its citizens and its member states. It was first adopted in 1787 by the Constitutional Convention that took place in Philadelphia.
The Aarhus Convention is a multifaceted agreement binding member European nations to facilitate; matters of justice access, a participation of the public in governance as well ass access of information by the public. The agreement was adopted in 1998 and two signatories meetings were arranged, one in 1999 and the other in 2000.
The author states that the Immigration Act of 1965 was passed by the Congress government of the country sponsored by Ted Kennedy, the senator of United States. With the new Immigration Act, the national origin formula that existed from the days of the previous Immigration Act of the year 1924 was abolished.
The Classical School theories on crime were developed in the 1700s through the work of Italian philosopher Cesar Beccaria and English philosopher Jeremy Bentham as social changes were taking place due to changes in the socio-economic structure of society. The philosophical foundation of reason as an approach to the nature of society.
The passage of the Companies Act of 2006 has brought about certain key changes, which may be summarized as follows: (a) refining of the scope of director duties (b) promoting shareholder engagement in the functioning of the Company (c) simplifying capital maintenance provisions and (d) facilitating e-communications.
The author states that in some cases, the tort of negligence is unintentional where the defendant would have no intention of causing harm to the plaintiff. Likewise, society is becoming complex and careful consideration ought to be taken in making claims under the tort of negligence as going to be critically analyzed in the given case studies.
This problem is made more intensive in areas where human rights are violated and the national law does not provide the protection required; because of such phenomena, power has been given to the International Courts to intervene in order to resolve such crises. However, often the solution is not clear.
The European Union Bill 2010 has been the subject of many heated discussions in the past months. Since the British Coalition Government assumed into office in May 2010, the idea of passing a bill that will look into the powers of the Parliament has put forward.
This research will begin with the statement that labor relations are regarded as the study of relationships which exists in the workplace among employees as well as between workers and employers in different organizations. It represents all the employers as well as employees, the government of the country, and also other types of organizations and institutions in society.
The Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (previously known as the Trade Practices Act 1974) is an Act of the Parliament of Australia. It seeks to promote competition, fair trading as well as providing protection for consumers (Miller, 2012). It is administered by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (Cth) (CCA).
The author states that it has also been observed that drug trafficking organizations in the US vary significantly with organizations in the other nations. Nonetheless, the transformation in the management style of the drug trafficking organizations is ascertained to lay a considerable impact on the law enforcement agencies in the US.
The research strives to prove that male children are more likely to commit felonies than their female counterparts are. Educated juveniles are less likely to commit crimes. Younger children are less likely to commit crimes. Adolescents, on the other hand, are most likely to commit crimes.
Law has been defined as the commandments and regulations which are enforced by the dominant group that controls the structures of nation-states. Ideology, on the other hand, refers to the dogma, parables, and faith that channel the direction of nation states. In simplistic terms, it would be easier to deduce that law is an extension of ideology.
The most common kinds of intellectual property include trademarks, copyrights, industrial design rights, patents, and trade enigmas in some jurisdictions. According to Sherman and Bently (1999), “The British Statute of Anne 1710 and the Statute of Monopolies 1623 are now seen as the origin of copyright and patent law respectively.”
Ultimately, it is essential to clarify for an expert that s/he is being remunerated for the effort and time to give evidence, not for the evidence. If an expert is prominent for his/her truthfulness and impartiality as an expert, s/he can be of tremendous use in assisting lawyers in successfully resolving or settling a case.
The paper tells that Salomon has been in Australian corporate law for a very long time, the ramifications of the separate legal entity has not been yet fully implemented, thus the shareholders even having control and ownership are not be equated with a corporate entity.
There is no evidence that torture leads to the better outcome in criminal investigations or prisoner’s long-term behavior. On the contrary, torture leads to a permanent memory of resent that may affect the harmfully personal life of prisoner’s in myriad ways. The assimilation of such prisoners to the society would become much more difficult.
This case involves a rare gouache painting known alternately as “Menageries” by the famous artist Marc Chagall, which was stolen in the 1960s from the Guggenheim Museum by a thief who had never been apprehended. In 1967, the Lubell family bought the artwork from a local art gallery without knowing that it had been stolen.
The police personnel of a state usually use their power in their territorial area of responsibility. The role of police in society cannot be overstated. Police force can be used both for civil protection and political protection. Civil force is that aspect of policing that is concerned with enforcing criminal law.
The history of antisocial behaviour dates back in the early 19th century when various scientific studies revealed the occurrence of individuals who were mentally healthy but continued to behave in a manner that was unacceptable to society despite having knowledge regarding their antisocial conduct.
The author of the study would undertake criminal justice principles to examine the ethical status of prison research. It is somehow important to know the behavior possessed by prisoners behind the bars. This insists author to employ peter principles to better analyze the situation. Furthermore, the author of the study is interested to put a glance at court system & the significance of laws in this context.
The role of forensic evidence in the determination of cases came under criticism in the Jill Dando case that saw the conviction of Barry George, the suspect in the murder case and later to his acquittal after his third appeal that was heard with the exclusion of forensic evidence succeeded. Jill Wendy Dando was born in November 1961 and faced her death by shooting in April 1999.
The author tells about the issue is the extent to which UK orgаnisаtions аre fаir when it comes to offering equаlity of opportunity to minority groups in employment. There is а wide rаnge of elements involved in mаnаging diversity including legislаtive considerаtions, the hаndling of equаl opportunity issues,
According to the paper, feminists have challenged the very framework of the law as being geared towards serving a male-oriented view which does not support the problems faced by women. Through the application of legal principles based on those advanced by Rawls, which forms the cornerstone of jurisprudence, most of the problems faced by women.
The ICJ had made several important comments on the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons. First, it expressed concern regarding the protection of civilian entities from the effects of these weapons. It also made a clear distinction between combatants and non – combatants. Second, States that use nuclear weapons must not target civilian objects.
The author of the paper tells that there is a significant variation of the applicability of consent as a valid defense, which is inherently dependent on judicial categorization. On the one hand, it is submitted that this is necessary as the range of offenses and conduct potentially falling within the ambit of consent requires a flexible approach tailored to the relevant situation.
YouTube was created in 2005 as a platform for sharing videos and today it has become a world’s most popular video sharing site and a billion dollar business. Google acquired YouTube in 2006 for $ 1.65 billion. While YouTube is soaring in its popularity, it is facing serious copyright issues for its user-generated content.
The author states that we hear about crimes day in and day out in the news. But what really is a crime? What makes certain acts criminal? What makes a person criminal? A definitive answer to these questions is elusive. The generally accepted definition of crime defines it as an act or omission that leads to penal sanction.
The Netherlands bars the payment of contingency fees to lawyers. As per Warren (1997), Netherland lawyers are charging on an hourly basis for the services rendered. As Netherland has introduced substantive law and the employment of legal assistance, only very negligible cases go to courts for resolution.
It would seem that although the rule approximates that of the role of a public policy, interest of justice is paramount over said rule. It is, therefore, the judiciary that would create the exception to the rule on veil on incorporation and as to what constitute interest of justice is a question of facts in relation to jurisprudence relating to the rule.
If there is a deadlock at the preliminary stage, the employers would be constrained to conduct a meeting, before which written notice would be served to alleged offending employee, describing the kind of offense and proposed a course of action. It would also allow him the right to have a companion and offer explanations.
The next step possibly the Commission can take is the second infringement procedure under Article 228 if a Member-State fails to comply with Court’s order pursuant to action taken under article 226. This will give an opportunity for the ECJ to impose a lump sum/penalty on the non-compliant Member-State.
Crime prevention is extremely important for the safety and security of the public. Reducing the risk of being a victim is the basic objective of crime prevention. Crime prevention means to reduce the crime rate and event disorders through the implementation of effective crime prevention strategies.
The most important issues in respect of exclusive possession are the fact that it gives ownership to the person for a specified period of time, and because of it being a proprietary interest, it can be assigned and may be binding on subsequent owners of reversion. In the case of a license, it is more of a personal right, binding on parties who created it.
The author states that attitudes and Cognitive Dissonance are the variables used in this hypothesis. The concept is that attitude is a learned behavior. The hypothesis is to show how they relate to and influence each other. Social psychology is concerned with social influences upon the individual.
The author states that the gap between the rich and the poor has continued to grow. Additionally, the poverty rate is still growing in many welfare states across the world. These trends have been attributed to various factors including globalization and transnational forces. This will be addressed in detail later in a different section in the paper.
Concepts of equality are perhaps the most fundamental theme that runs throughout the socio-political, legal and moral traditions of most Western nations. Equality represents notions of fairness and justice and legal and moral traditions seek to ignore distinctions among gender, race and social status.
Countries, such as France, Russian Federation, Germany, Austria, China, and Japan, forbid extradition of its citizens either by law or by treaty. Such restrictions are occasionally controversial in other countries when, for example, a citizen of these countries commits a crime abroad and then returns to their home country
Section 176 reformulates and replaces the equitable principle that fiduciaries must not accept bribes or secret commissions: Attorney-General for Hong Kong v Reid  1 A.C. 324, PC. Under this duty, some issues may have to be considered. First, how does the Act define a benefit? Others argue and relied on a de minimis rule