The process by which sight, sound and smell is converted into electrical signals in a form that can be interpreted by the nervous system is called sensory transduction. In this process, the external stimulus is recognized by a protein embedded in the lipid membrane of the sensory receptor.
According to the report factors like peer or group pressure, emotional distress, sadness, social alienation, and environmental stress can lead to increased use and dependence. Social, and genetic factors may be important factors, the pharmacological activation of brain reward systems is largely responsible for producing a drug's potent addictive properties.
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This paper focuses on how these wild cats differ and what similarities they have at the same time. Lions and tigers both belong to the cat family. Lions are mostly found in Asia and Africa while the tigers are confined to Asia only.
This paper is an analysis of the experimental procedures used in figure 3. This summary shall try to analyze those experimental processes and the key technicalities behind them. Key technical issues in the program of work include the accurate and PhIP sequencing and T7 cloning, verifying and analyzing results from human samples.
Herbal methods have always been thought to be effective, environment-friendly and inexpensive alternatives to more chemical or electronic methods of repelling or exterminating insects. This paper's purpose is to test the effectiveness of one of these herbal methods of repelling insect, the pandan plant.
The main aim is to help you to find a quick answer for the questions that are mentioned. Example: What is myringotomy? Answer: Myringotomy is a surgical approach whereby the tympanic membrane is incised. This is done to remove the fluid accumulated in the middle ear, which may be infective or non-infective.
Gorilla - Gorilla gorilla
They are regarded as the largest of all living primates. They have been found to confine largely to the forested regions of central Africa. Two varieties: highland and lowland. They show marked SEXUAL DIMORPHISM.
In this process, light energy from the sun is absorbed by the chlorophyll found in chloroplasts and is converted to chemical energy. The chemical energy is used to break down the bonds in the byproducts to form products.There are two phases of photosynthesis, the light reaction, and the dark reaction phase.
Bile is a yellowish brown digestive fluid produced solely by the liver. After secretion, the fluid flows to the gallbladder where it is stored until a need arises. Unlike other secretions found along the gastrointestinal tract, bile juice hardly contains any enzymes. Instead, it contains electrolytes, water, and organic molecules.
According to the report, Chromosome, human beings are born with 23 pairs of chromosomes. Scientifically they are numbered from 1 to 23.The 23rd pair determines the sex.The XX chromosome is found in females while XY in males. Naturally, the pairing of chromosomes and genes is similar to every human being.
According to the report the EU regards it as a major contributor towards the efforts of achieving its goals as well as objectives of economic growth, employment creation, improvement of the public health, environmental safeguarding and sustainable development. biotechnology has economically become a relevant sector receiving high interest within the EU.
After clearing the tissue samples need to be hardened for sectioning to take place. As a result paraffin wax and resins are used and tissue samples are placed into molds According to the substance used either cooling or heating is required for hardening to occur.
Extensive research conducted to understand the patterns of human behavior has resulted in several breakthroughs in the field of sexuality. Homosexuality exists, although there is a diverse social response to it, and it is now being theorized that it has a biological
The contamination of atmosphere by the harmful gases is known as air pollution. There are two main agents of air pollution, nature and man. One of the major uses of water, in America, in 19th century was in steam engines. In canals, water was used for delivery and conveyance of water for consumption and navigable transportation.
The main aim of the paper is to show the excellent opportunity for students of medical science to study the effects of ravaging disease and to conduct research into the physical effects that disease has upon the body. Because cancer is one of the leading causes of death in America, the exhibition provides a venue to learn more about this disease in detail, as well as encouraging the learning of healthy lifestyle habits that will assist in the prevention of these diseases from occurring.
The author states that the different types of mutualism that exists include: resource-resource relationship where both species obtain a resource from the other. Service-service relationship where each species benefits from a service offered by the other. Service-resource relationship where one species offers a service to the other.
According to the report there are a number of reasons as to why genetic modification is always carried out on plants and animals. With the alteration of the genes or even introducing new genes or DNA genetic engineers are always able to make sure that they modify organisms that are of more benefit to human beings and their environment
According to the report hunting can be considered as the practice of trapping of animals with the intention of killing them. Although this practice was a vital part of the survival of humans 100,000 years ago, it is now considered a violent form of recreation that a majority of hunters do not require for subsistence.
A phenomenon describing the use of the stethoscope in order to listen to the internal sounds of the body clearly. It requires considerable clinical experience and is an integral skill which is a part of the examination of three organ systems of the body namely cardiovascular (heart sounds), respiratory (breath sounds) and gastrointestinal (bowel sounds)
Kicking movement in football is a relatively easy series of rotational movements. During the kicking movement, the leg functions as an open kinetic chain. The motion pattern of kicking is generally accepted as a proximal-to-distal sequence of segmental motions in which the proximal segment (the thigh) initiates the movement, causing the more distal segment to lag behind,
Enzymes are produced by living cells only. They are very specific to the substrate and one particular enzyme will only catalyze one specific reaction. Enzymes have a fixed structure and shape that is vital for its functionality. Changes in the structure and shape of an enzyme will result in loss of enzymatic activity.
Some diseases have almost been removed in the United States, due to the use of vaccines. Furthermore, the vaccination against a disease should be continued until the disease has been wiped out, and no person is affected by it. A sudden halt in vaccination can allow the disease to strike back, and become threatening once again.
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Foods are by and large prohibited from this definition, regardless of their physiological impacts on animal species. In pharmacology, it is defined as "a chemical substance utilized as a part of the treatment, cure, avoidance, or conclusion of ailment or used to overall improve physical or mental well-being."
The salt dissolves in water depending on the proportionality of the solvent. In the scientific report below, using simple apparatus and method of evaporation, separation of salt from a solution of water was determined. The salts crystallized after the water evaporated from the pan and as a result of continued crystallization, solid particles of the salts were obtained.
According to the report invasive species have tolerance for a broad range of climatic conditions and survive on an extensive variety of food. Invasive species invade the native ecosystem from places that are geographically distant from the native ecosystem through various natural means. Humans have been responsible for introducing some invasive species.
Animals have been used for biomedical research since the historical times of Aristotle, the scientists performed experiments on living animals in order to advance their understanding of anatomy, pathology and physiology among others, this even led to the introduction of animal testing as an experimental method.
According to the report the United States government has trained nearly 75 dolphins for war purposes, and they have been deployed to Iraq. The United States government refers to these dolphins as ‘advanced biological weapons systems’. In Iraq, they were or are used to sniff for mines and hence keep the shipping lanes free from mines.
Lead is a persistent and common environmental contaminant. Lead damages cellular material and alters cellular genetics leading to neurological, hematological, gastrointestinal, reproductive, circulatory, and immunological pathologies. A safe level of lead exposure has not been defined, as health risks associated with lead are found at ever lower doses.
The properties are instrumental to the growth, development and survival of a particular species. All living things have to exhibit these properties to quality as having life. The properties of life not only sustain life but also define life. Looking at the different properties of life gives a deeper understanding of the scientific perspective of life.
The Articles main objective is to expound on how cell death is induced in a MC7-cells culture via different biological processes such as generating oxidative stress by using a Dillenia suffruticosa Ethyl Acetate extract.
This paper will focus on the modern analytical techniques used in food analysis to ensure food safety. Food safety is indispensable as it affects the health of consumers and it would be injurious to the manufacturers’ credibility if their products are found to be harmful or toxic. Food safety is ensured using different analytical techniques that are discussed below.
In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration announced that it was not sure whether meat from cloned animals was being sold to unsuspecting customers. USDA, however, moved that cloned meat was fit for consumption and that consumers should not worry or even require that cloned meat be labeled.
According to the report many perspectives have come up to take sides on whether animals deserve to suffer so humans can live. Critically looking at this issue, it can be seen the problem cuts across some social fabrics ranging from religion, science to philosophy and independent thinking. Using animals for research is a serious violation.
According to the research findings salt marshes have been seen to be more dominant and growing on the East and Gulf coasts in the United States. On the other side, the West Coast does not have a lot of salt marshes because of the narrow continental shelf, heavy surf and a terrain that resembles that of a mountain.
Inducible gene knockouts usually define a biological model whose target gene of interest can be inactivated specifically at a given point and time. Before the induction takes place, the gene of interest is usually expressed functionally. It is possible to engineer inactivation in all body cells or tissue in any specified manner.
The author states that there are different ways of moving genes in both animals and plants in order to produce the desired outcome. Due to improvements in technology these days, genetic modification can be done in laboratories. When this technology is performed on crops, and the plants are regarded as Genetically Modified Crops (GM crops).
This pathway plays a major role in embryonic development by deciding the fate of binary cells. 'Notch' is named after the notched wing phenotype of mutant Drosophila. Other important functions of the pathway include cell proliferation, regulation of boundary formation between various cell populations and cell death.
In the scientific article, Conditional monogyny: female quality predicts male faithfulness, Bhandoo and his colleagues found that this palp removal reduced the weight of the male orb-web spider, and thus, increasing its stamina significantly.
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Recent research indicates that women taking progestin and Estrogen are at health risks of getting breast cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction, and venous thromboembolism compared to women taking placebo. This has promoted the use of progestin and Estrogen after a keen consideration of the health risks involved.
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The American eel, or Anguilla rostrata, is found mainly on the eastern coast of North America. It has a snake like body with a head almost similar to that of a snake. Only its tail give it an appearance of a fish. In other words, it is difficult to segregate it from snakes. It is brownish in color at the top and yellowish at bottom.
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It usually catches the prey chiefly the arachnids and insects with the help of a trapping structure formed by each leaf in the plant’s terminal portion. Tiny hairs that are available in the leaves’ inner surfaces play a pivotal role in the catching of prey. The Venus flytrap can be termed as one of the most awesome and best-known plants.
Global warming is the long-term and short-term influence on the climate that leads to increased greenhouse gas emission causing adverse impacts on the biological and physical systems. The menace is referred to as global warming because temperatures rise above the normal limits to melt the snows leading to rising in sea levels and ocean acidification.
Sleep is the state of consciousness experienced as a part of 24-hour life cycle bringing about comfort and relaxation from the days hard work. Sleep can be divided into rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) that regulate the maintenance of sleep-wake cycle which is the most important bodily rhythm.
The radial immunodiffusion is a more widely used quantitative method and can be used to quantify immunoglobulins (including IgG subclasses) and serum proteins. However even though it is sensitive method the reaction time is long.
This assignment is connected to the field of human anatomy and physiology. It tries to investigate the notions and answer the questions about blood pressure along with elaborating on the topic of electrocardiography. In current assignment, you will find pictures presented on the topic with explanations.
f a set of pairs of monozygotic twins carrying similar alleles for every gene, if they are raised in separate homes they may become different individuals. It implies that gene alleles differ across different environments.