Comparison and Critical Evaluation of Different Theories of Interpersonal Attraction Abstract This paper compares and critically evaluates four theories of interpersonal attraction. The four theories of interpersonal attraction are: the Social Exchange Theory, Equity Theory, Evolutionary Theory, and the Attachment Theory.
Along with this psychotherapists also have to pay attention to individual and cultural diversity among their clientele. In this contrasting scenario, the need to critically evaluate the various aspects of psychology as a discipline is important. According to Kuhn (1970) and Pepper (1942), every science is built upon a consensually agreed upon paradigm or world view.
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The core idea underlying this popular philosophic stance is that knowledge is socially and culturally mediated while learning is "...a self-regulated process of resolving inner cognitive conflicts that often become apparent through concrete experience, collaborative discourse, and reflection" (Fosnot, 1993: 7).
Secondly, it is necessary to consider the interpersonal challenges associated with teams. Thirdly, it is important to note that a team is not appropriate in every situation. By considering each of these factors, it will be shown that teams should only be used in diverse workplaces when the advantages of the team outweigh the input that will be required to overcome the challenges.
It was originally designed to "remedy the problems of existing rating scale by providing a specific measure of the severity of symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder that is not influenced by the type of obsessions or compulsions present". The scale is a "clinician-rated, 10-item scale, each item rated from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (extreme symptoms) (total range, 0 to 40), with separate subtotals for severity of obsessions and compulsions." The characteristics of each item during the prior week up until and including the time of the interview is rated where scores reflect the average (mean) occurrence of each item for the entire week.
As community service providers it is our duty to explore and understand issues of adult and child unhappiness.
Major depression causes a person to feel deep unhappiness. When a person experiences depression they may also feel bored and un-motivated, downgraded, self-depreciating and demoralized (Santrock, 2004).
The test was structured in three main parts, out of which the first one was purely demographic, having the strict purpose of establishing the gender and the educational level but also the educational background of each of the interviewed students.
These investigations can provide preliminary evidence on the probable importance of genetic factors and serve as the foundation for subsequent research. People over the age of 18 who have at least one biological parent with severe and repetitive life problems with alcohol are referred to as adult children of alcoholics.
The yearly costs of low morale and absenteeism in the United States are estimated to be $29 billion and a change of 4.99% in the national absence rate changes the gross national product by $10 billion. (London, 134-135) A great number of studies are done to identify the determinants of low morale and absenteeism.
A personality test is a set of techniques that can be used to evaluate the negative traits affect a person live. These disorders are caused by many factors and their treatment level varies, where some may short duration while others will take longer to be adjusted.
In his discussion, Laaser focuses more on religious perspective on the issue. He also offers professional bit into the matter. He sheds more light into the matter using Biblical worldview and other ethical perspectives. According to the author, there is sexual sin in the wider society and in the church.
One particular experience of a right-versus-right decision was when I was still working in the hospital. One of the AIDS patients died so I myself contacted a funeral home to pick up the body. When I asked them if they have known that the patient had HIV/AIDS, it turned out that they were not aware of the matter.
This is a country where we all walk, like so many ants, we walk and walk our way to trains, to buses, to cabs, and even though most of the way we are carried from one place to the other, it sure feels like a lot of walking. But the toe looks like it is not used to the open road, it looks cozy and homey in there and I wonder about the wearer of the shoe.
The assignment discusses in detail the consumer behaviour, starting the research main objective, which is to understand the negative and positive service encounters in hotels and restaurants and its impact on customer's behaviour. The consumption process as the basis of the report, which traces the evolution in the Western world, and then discuss the decision making process, followed by the literature review of the hospitality industry and research methodology to explore the issue with a solid conclusion.The objective of this research is to understand the consumer behaviour by studying consumer decision-making process and its application in hotel and restaurants, with reference to positive an
This can be done through creating an environment, which is bright, colourful, interactive, kinaesthetically and aesthetically pleasing, using a wide range of interactive resources and displays. It is important not only to structure classrooms that are stimulating and encouraging, but to create competitive yet rewarding learning environments.
According to the authors, one problem that prevents managers from dealing with the more important organizational issues within a company is the seeming unproductive ‘busyness’ managers are constantly caught up in. In this sense, the authors provide their own prescriptive measures on how managers can overcome this problem.
Psychoanalytic and the person centred counselling are two widely used approaches. Psychoanalytic is an approach that intelligently deals with an individual's hidden feelings by interpretation of his unconscious mind, which results in an increase in his self-awareness.
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25 customers left their trays on the table. Using the above data implies that 36.53% of the customers I observed, picked up their trays and emptied them. 15.38% of those customers picked up their trays and carried them to the bin but stowed them unemptied and 48.07% did not attempt to pick up their tray or empty it.
This paper stands as an advocate for self-esteem education, which emphasizes that the development of self-esteem in students is as important as giving them academic knowledge. But before discussing the benefits of self-esteem education we need to clarify what do we mean by self-esteem and why is it so important to foster self-efficacy of children
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Attention, a state of focused awareness and readiness to respond, is the "first step in sensation and perception" and they together form the fundamental psychological condition for learning. (Johnstone, 2003, p. 87).
Sensation, perception and attention are the three most essential criteria for realizing the learning process and the environment has a vital impact on these.
The te'cher therefore c'n ev'lu'te the mor'l development of students, including soci'l 'nd emotion'l development, 'nd give mor'l re'soning described in this p'per.
Kohlberg ( 1976 ) described sever'l st'ges of mor'l development beginning with 'n underst'nding of extern'l st'nd'rds of right 'nd wrong 'nd evolving l'ter into more re'soned ethic'l choices b'sed on more complex principles 'nd 'n'lysis.
When an individual is more courageous and takes more risks, life expands for that person. When he is fearful and refuses to take leaps of faith, however, life shrinks for him and he never fully experiences the entire spectrum of experience that life has to offer.
As per 'New York State Department of Health, 2005, guidelines, which are taken to be exemplary here, blood samples are to be tested for the presence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) either using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or rapid testing. Positive results should be subjected to Western Blot analysis.
According to (Radcliffe,1998), "Stress can be good as well as bad. His response includes physiological changes-such as increased heart rate and muscle tension-as well as emotional and behavioral changes". However, most psychologists regard stress as a process involving a person's interpretation and response to a threatening event.
There are not many schools in the United States that offer a degree in forensic psychology. The three primary programs are the California School of Professional Psychology, Widener University, and Sam Houston State University.
This emphasis on personal choice and capacity for change represents an historical departure from the more deterministic stance of traditional psychoanalysis. It also represents a more open-ended and less directive approach than competing behaviorist and brief therapy models.
Learning affects people throughout their lives: in school; at home or on the job. Understanding one's personal learning style or method can help a person organize their own learning activities. Actually there are two main perspectives in learning theories:
According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that to avoid misunderstandings arising from cultural differences, each and everyone must respect the other’s culture. This will work since no one will view their culture as superior to others. In addition, all parties involved will feel that they have been treated with dignity.
By stimulus we include conscious intention not just, say, reacting away from a pin prick" as pointed out by Noel Huntley, PhD (2002) in his article "Reaction Times: The Two That Science Omitted" .
Simon's granddad indicated this very fact and set about trying to test this hypothesis with his friends.
The four basic assumptions of attachment theory have been robustly supported by observational research that helps us understand the fundamental and enduring influence parents, in one generation, have upon the next generations. (Green, 2003, p. 87) The four assumptions which convey the essence of Bowlby's attachment theory are as follows:
Psychodynamic counselling is thus a model that utilises the various psychoanalytic concepts to explain human growth and development and the nature or causes of psychological problems. The model makes use of the therapeutic relationship (between counsellor and client), to gain useful insight into the unconscious relationship patterns that have evolved from childhood (Psychodynamic Theory and Therapy, 2006).
Although Jane was the patient I was caring for, this incident is related to her mother. In this assignment, no information will be utilized which could violate the healthcare informatics confidentiality issues, such as anonymity, confidentiality, and data protection.
The author explains that counselling is a process that helps to untangle thoughts or feelings concerning a particular situation. It helps the client to realize themselves in a process of self actualisation. The counsellor listens to the client and guides the client to find possible solution to the problem.
Individuals who easily developed fears of dangerous objects or situations could have had a selective advantage in the struggle for survival. Furthermore, it is theorized that social anxiety disorder, like specific phobias, develops as a consequence of one or more traumatic conditioning experiences.
With this realization, I know that we should always have an open mind to accept people's misconception and misjudgment against us.My childhood memory brings me to the very first instance of being accused with a wrongdoing I did not commit.
Discuss how the notion of sexual citizenship differs from Freudian and Foucaldian concepts of Sexual identity. Identity- whether based on race, gender, ethnicity, ability, or sexuality – has emerged during the last half-century as one of the most difficult problems for contemporary theory and politics.
Enemies, secretly or not so secretly, wish each other to be afflicted with lots of suffering. In medieval times, wherein witchcraft was practiced, one inflicts the hated one with needle pricks to cause him corporal suffering. There is 'unexplainable' suffering when one comes to this world with some faculties that are deformed or sorely lacking, as when one is born blind, crippled or maimed with a harelip or when one is severely deformed as in the case of the thalidomide babies.
Since it is used in a variety of different ways, it is not entirely clear what it means. Therefore, a number of psychological theories of identity have been used to define identity and explain the processes that produce it. This paper will therefore look at one approach to identity and how it can help to explain the identities of people with disabilities.
Our plan covers a set of activities introduced at the ward, the outline when and how which activity will be conducted and weekly analysis as which activity is creating positive impact on the patient and how the activities can be productive through shuffling.
Even though this difficulty, that doesn't mean that it is impossible to find a good enough counsellor who can deal with any kind of patients. Indeed, it is possible and probable to find such a good counsellor if you take a closer look at the present trends in Psychological Counselling, especially related to the Humanistic, Transpersonal and Universalist approaches.
One of the major concepts being developed during the primary schooling is the development of quantitative understanding within a child; these grasp the roots and foundation only in the early times, and based on these grass roots levels, a child develops himself into the world that has a number of quantitative method based subjects today.
Pulling herself up, she opens the drawers in the bathroom. Her mother's lipstick rolls around, curious, she grabs at the lipstick and trying to find out what it is begins to figure out how to open it.
Meaningful context in childhood development is giving the child a reason or understanding of what, why, or how they are doing something.
The author states that although there were measurable differences between male and female participants, the bar graphs show a similar pattern of performance. All results of the study were very close in nature. The study concluded that males and females performance on the Stroop test was similar with small variations.
The therapist's role is that of an 'active listener' who provides an atmosphere of trust and warmth in which growth can occur. Many mental disorders are felt to result from the client's self-concept being threatened by demands from others which are incongruent with that self-concept.
Prejudice and stereotyping are the mind's unrealistic pre-judging of a person based on a physical characteristic. The mind attempts to simplify the world by placing things in categories. It leads us to believe that everyone in a category thinks and acts similarly. This mistaken belief causes our behavior to become irrational.
Communication gap is defined as lack of proper communication thus leading to a misunderstanding and responding negatively. My personal experience proves the above point. For example, when I was involved in a relationship, I had differences with my partner and we indulged in arguments and shouted at each other.
The valid context in understanding the self concept is through the understanding of 'I and Me'. What this means is simply that what are the factors that reflect a person's identity. 'I' is a resolute term defining a person efficacy that to what extent does he thinks himself to be regarded important and similarly the 'Me' factor is that how that person is known by the Society or friends.
Autism is one of the disease conditions in children, which cause problems in interacting with the society, and the children develop certain repetitive behaviours. The normal milestones of development of a child include: the social smile, the ability of the child to follow the objects past in the midline of their face, the child producing ooo or aah sounds etc.
Using a scale from 1 to 4, participants measured how sure they were that each word was listed earlier. Participants "remembered" visually and semantically similar words more often than unrelated words.
Cramming for test is a recipe for failure. There are times when the brain's associative capacities are a hinderance for accurate recall.