It occurs as a result of genetic background and environmental risk factors. The people from high risk family environments are highly prone to addiction. It has been stated that repeated exposure to cocaine leads to a…
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Individual risk factors include male gender, late adolescence and behavior problems.
Cocaine is a powerful stimulant and highly addictive drug making it one of the most frequently abused. Users typically snort the drug in powder form, liquefy it and take it as an injection or roll it and smoke.
Pathophysiology: cocaine is an alkaloid located in the leaves of coca plant, which enhances dopamine, serotonine and norepinephrine activity in the nervous system (central and periphery). Most especially, the enhancement of dopamine activity is the cause of the drug’s intended effects and developing abuse. It blocks Na channels, which is responsible for its action as a local anesthetic. The most important pharmacological action of cocaine involves blocking the initiation or conduction of the action potential after application to a nerve.
The anesthetic effect of cocaine is because of a direct membrane effect. It blocks the initiation and conduction of electrical impulses that occur in nerve cells inside the body by blocking an increase of cell membrane permeability to sodium ions when depolarization occurs. As such, the alternations in synaptic transmissions mediate the systemic effects on the nervous system.
Toxicity: it is life threatening sympathomimetic syndrome that has sodium channel blockade. A toxic dose is highly variable, small doses could cause intoxication in non-tolerant patients. Hyperthermia, cardiac conduction abnormality, headaches and focal neurological signs are of the life-threatening complications.
Toxicodynamics: cocaine has sympathomimetic, sodium channel blocking and vasospastic effects. It blocks myocardial fast sodium channels and presynaptic cathecholamine re-uptake and central nervous system excitation.
Toxicokinetics: cocaine use causes rapid absorption through mucous memberanes of lungs, CI tract and nasopharynx. It is a high lipid soluble and has a high metanolism rate
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Though its popularity has declined somewhat since the 1970’s and 80’s, cocaine is still one of the top drugs of choice among users, abusers, and addicts. Blaise writes, “Cocaine abuse is widespread but rarely admitted. There is no cocaine consumer profile either for social class, age or sex” (pg. 1263). In truth, cocaine is not as insidious a drug as one might suppose. While users can typically hide their use for a little while, extended use of cocaine shows obvious external signs of their drug habit.
The thing about toxicants is that there are many different potential, forms, means of exposure, plus reactions due to a combination of exposures that can make determining the safest levels like fitting together a puzzle where the pieces keep changing.
It is a stimulant of the central nervous system and an appetite suppressant, creating what has been described as a euphoric sense of happiness and increased energy.For thousands of years and still today, South American indigenous peoples have chewed the coca leaf (Erythroxylon coca), a plant which contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids, including cocaine. The leaf was and is chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities, but there is no evidence that its habitual use ever led to any of the negative consequences generally associated with habitual cocaine use today.
For a shorter duration of time, the user feels more energetic, stronger, and sharper (Romanelli & Smith, 2006). This has made methamphetamine a popular drug of abuse, since most of the initial users often take recourse to chronic use. Many authorities believe that with prolonged exposure to even very low dose of methamphetamine, a significant proportion of dopaminergic brain cells would eventually get damaged beyond recovery, mainly due to chronic low levels of dopamine within the brain cells, leading to serious compromise in attention, memory, and decision making functions.
Aquatic Metal toxicity depends upon particular water sample's chemical composition such as dissolved organic carbon, oxygen various other elements. Formations of organic and inorganic metal complexes are highly dependent upon the ambient water chemistry (Sunda and Guillard 1976).
Research is still on to unravel the complex interactions among brain regions and neurotransmitter systems that account for the addiction to cocaine.
There is no fixed, forthright and known cure for cocaine addiction.
This research paper examines the substances disorders that develop primarily from cocaine misuse. In particular, the paper will examine the areas of intoxication, withdrawal, and the course that it takes. The research also examines
b chronic toxicity is used to determine the level of toxicity that arises in a subject for a particular period that is from recurring exposures of some weeks to several months. Chronic testing on the other hand is used to determine the level of toxicity that arises in a subject
How is it being used now: Presently use of cocaine for medicinal purposes has significantly decreased whereby it is only used for minor surgeries as an anesthetic, however individuals especially young adults continue to abuse crack cocaine, which is a free