The amount of effort that has to be done in this filed for collecting, analyzing and reporting that data has to face many hurdles and complexities during the research, same as other sciences. This paper would mainly focus and scrutinize the scientific approach towards Criminal Justice Research, while bringing in the use of new terminology and awareness that has been made available from the present course curriculum.
Sometimes, law is unjust and then crime is defined by authority but not supported by society. An example of how crime is not supported by society can be seen in Antigone as the law of the king denies her the right to bury her brother. The king is beseeched to change his decree, but the result is still tragic as Antigone has defied him once more by taking her own life so that he would not be able to execute her.
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When two parties signs a contract, they are obliged both morally and lawfully to keep the agreement which is due for compensation in case one side of the agreement fails to honor the agreement as stipulated in the agreement. In that regard, a contract can be defined as a promise or an undertaking that is legally enforceable depending on the agreement of the contact whether something will take place or not (Elliott, and Frances, 1999).
Calvin Stark was convicted within the Superior Court, Clallam County Washington, of two Counts of second-degree dishonor for intentionally disclosing his intimate partner to the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus), and he appealed. The Washington Court of Appeals asserted and remitted the case for commutation.
However, this is not case because young people find themselves in adult prison cells. This is made possible through the process of waiver, where the judge allows the prosecutor to transfer the juvenile case to an adult court (Marcovitz, 2012). There are a number of disadvantages and advantages of transferring a juvenile to an adult court.
There are three significant understandings about this freedom; the freedom only covers a limited range of unambiguous political communication; the freedom does not consider any relevance in the protection of an individual autonomy and that the freedom of political communication does not directly apply to the common law
Privatization of delivery entails an augmented dependence on the institutions and individuals without the ambit of the state for the extension of health care related services (Parliament of Canada, 2013). Thereby, there is an innate scope for the privatization of healthcare within the Canada Health Act 1984 and in a legal sense the privatization of health care is not something antithetical to the Canadian Law.
The principle of proportionately in criminal sentencing is mainly practiced by the Supreme Court of United States of America. As per this principle, the court is required to seek that the punishment sentenced are appropriate in accordance with the crime committed under the ‘Cruel and Unusual Punishment Clause’.
Various people of different ethnic backgrounds have been subjected to different forms of discrimination based on skin color. Racial discrimination has led to increased levels of poverty amongst certain communities. Although Native Americans often face racial discrimination, non-Native Americans are the most affected people group, especially African-Americans.
Kernott,1 would assume that, because James has not been paying child support, that it would be fair and just to reduce any amount of equity that he has in the house, just looking at bare financials. This paper will examine the Jones case, and other cases, to determine how the court will look at the facts of this case and try to ascertain how the court will rule in this case.
Such persons are called squatters and their reasons for squatting include poverty, protests, recreation, politics and the need of a home. The high cost of housing in England, and the accompanying benefit caps, has also contributed significantly to squatting.
The term “trade dress” refers to the non-functional aspect of a product usually found in its packaging or the design of the product itself. It includes features such as shape, size, color, textures, designs and the manner by which words are arranged on the product.
This leads to a situation whereby the majority would rule but with appropriate care and consideration given to minorities. Consequently, the same number of sections would prevent any one from exerting dictatorial power over the rest
It is crucial that they observe whether Fergus acted in the interests of the company. Lastly, the managers must evaluate whether the company, Ikant, would be held responsible for the mistakes (Douglas 2006, p.36). The company would be held liable for payments, when we look at various contexts.
A statute is typically an instrument to command or prohibit something, or declare policy. Statute, sometimes referred as legislation or black letter law, differ from law made by legislative bodies and regulations issued by government agencies. Ideally statutes must be in harmony with the constitution of the country and thus considered to be the primary source of law.
They also failed to make appropriate orders concerning the accrued and unpaid child support due according to the original court-ordered amount. There was no finding of a “substantial” change in circumstances to justify modification. Appellant humbly prays this court will reverse the child support modification ordered.
Feminist criminologists also focus on other issues such as women’s treatment by the police, the courts, and the prison system. Significant emphasis is laid on the effect of social institutions such as criminal justice system and social norms on sexuality and violence.
HIV incidence is still elevated for incarcerated populaces than for the universal population. In actuality, it has been projected that amid 17% and 25% of individuals who have HIV within America pass via the correctional system. This paper will discuss the health risk of HIV/AIDS in corrections.
It has been recognized that the restitutionary awards can be either as a result of wrong doing or due to unjust payment. According to Burrows (2011), the law of restitution is based entirely on the principle of reversing a defendant’s unjust enrichment at the expense of the claimant.
The main rule that governs contract law in common law jurisdictions that the offer is revocable until acceptance has occurred. Once acceptance has occurred a valid contract exists, and the offeror must fulfill the legitimate expectations created by the contract.
Another definition of forensic evidence can be evidence that can be used by a law court, especially the evidence that has been obtained via scientific methods like DNA tests, blood tests and ballistics (James & Nordby, 2009). Forensic evidence has, therefore, assisted the law sector through shaping the justice in the globe, fuelling investigation of crimes and signifying the advancement of current technology.
The implications behind the development are that Charlie is subject to all legal acts such as legal redress and reimbursement, since these acts are extended to the slighted litigant. The veracity of this standpoint is underscored by the discussion of relevant legislation, pertinent laws of negligence and Australian contract law that ensues forthwith.
CBD can make conditional job offers upon satisfactory health check-ups. Upon job confirmation, they may pose health related questions and require employees to undergo medical checks. If information obtained reveals a condition that would affect an individual's ability to perform their duties, CBD would consider reasonable adjustments that may assist the employee.
THE NOTION OF CHILD-INCLUSIVE (AS OPPOSED TO CHILD-FOCUSED) MEDIATION IS ILL CONCEIVED AND MISGUIDED. INVITING CHILDREN INTO THE MIDDLE OF THEIR PARENTS’ DISPUTE IS LIKELY TO AGGRAVTE RATHER THAN IMPROVE THEIR SITUATION: CRITICAL DISCUSSION This essay is primarily based on critically analyzing the mediation approach of including child during the process of parental conflict based on separation or divorce.
It did not require government bailout to remain stable in its business activiites. Within this situation, the company effectively mainatined its reputation and attracted more number of new customers. In this particular year, the company’s sales increased considerably.
In other words, the Supreme Court through the Exclusionary rule aimed at excluding any type of evidence obtained through official lawlessness; the American derivation of the Exclusionary rule is considered unique as a result of its deterrence rationale, as well as a mandatory nature in which it applies.
They give emphasis on fierce orations in court, tense altercations with King James I, and nationalistic speeches on the house of the Commons. He should also be viewed as an icon in a particular cultural setting. With his declarations that the common law was predetermined and perpetual, and of the same status with the civil law of the land, he was one of the Elizabethans who greatly contributed to the formation and growth of an English kingdom.1 Based on the Elizabethan era are Coke’s description of law as the judges’ shared knowledge, a perspective which supports his judgment in Bonham’s Case, and his professional capacity to re-evaluate the historical background of the common law, whi
Job dissatisfaction is a leading cause of staff turnover, and this evidences internal inefficiencies in terms of policies. Kania et al states that police agencies spend a great sum of money on recruiting, selecting and training new employees. To add, he states that turnover in corrections department is exceptionally high, especially in the last years of employment as experienced officers opt to take positions in better paying agencies.
Litigation is usually a costly and time-consuming method of conflict resolution, which is why the parties under dispute prefer other methods of settling the conflict that is more confidential and less time consuming. In order to understand why conflicting parties would prefer one method to solve a dispute to another, the views presented by both should be put into consideration in reference to the methods involved in the resolution process.
However, legally Thomas is on the wrong for illegally encroaching on the council’s land, which now belongs to Edward. However, he has legal grounds to reverse this decision according to the law. Encroaching is the act of something or someone illegally crossing and occupying another person’s land.
A significant percentage of all the money made around the world are not really what with think they are. It is money generated from illegal activities that processed into the banking sector as legally acquired funds. It is, therefore, a serious situation that needs to be combated in all nations around the world.
Spring Valley Middle School aims at maintaining high standards, with regard to conduct of all its employees. Sexual misconduct of any kind is not tolerated. Therefore, such observations are important to the management and the whole school, as this will help to pave way for important steps that will ensure the image of our school remains untainted.
On the other hand, the definition “terrorism against women and children” also has the meaning that is not closely connected with terrorism as the act of violence. The term can be used when we are talking about the violence and cruelty against women and children that they may face in our everyday life.
Consequently, capital tax is obtained from the gains made from disposing of the assets of the shares property and the antiques one once owned. Another difference that defines the two paradigms is that income tax is a compulsory tax made from the deduction on the wages salaries and other financial investment profits.
This is due to the fact that social networking can be used to manipulate the masses. IT experts such as Anderson and Mohan (2011) posit that just as airplanes were used to spread and drop propaganda leaflets over enemy camps, the same is the case with social networks, presently.
In the case involving Chahal and UK1, the four applicants were members of the same kin and are Sikhs. The very first applicant comes into the United Kingdom illegally in the year 1971 in hunt of employment. To regularize his stay, he applied to the Home Office and was given indefinite leave to stay in regard to the terms of an amnesty given to illegal entrants who had arrived prior to 1 January 19732.
The term Intellectual property is a legal concept that provides exclusive rights to the owners of the property to insure some ‘intangible ‘ objects that are often over looked or taken for granted. Some of them are works of artistic importance, important scientific discoveries, musical and literary assets and so on.
By 1500, only significant number felonies carried the death penalty such as treason, murder, burglary, rape, arson, and larceny. In the United Kingdom, death by hanging remained the prime means of execution. The last executions in the United Kingdom were carried out in 1964 before abolishment of capital punishment for murder in Great Britain, which happened in 1969.
The doctrine of Parliamentary sovereignty is entrenched within the British constitution as essential in the operation of the separation of powers and the leading decision in R v Jordan highlighted the point that the judiciary was bound by Parliament and could not challenge Parliamentary authority when interpreting and applying legislation.
The author of the text comments on one of the most horrifying crimes, child sexual abuse. It is mentioned here that crime is actually the violation of the statute of prevailing law, against which judicial system announces punishments and penalties by investigating into the nature, intensity, and intention of the offense.
Written Reflective Commentary. The purpose of this reflective commentary is to discuss how the assignment helped me to develop skills and enhance strengths and abilities while working with the group. I will also reflect on the advantages and disadvantages of the resources that I researched for the group assignment.
3). This link between punishment and the structure of the society is reflected in Durkheim's views about punishment and types of solidarity in societies; Philip Nonet and Philip Selznick's analysis of transitional legal systems and the movement from repressive to responsive law; Donald Black's work on the behavior of law; Michel Foucault's treatise on changes over time in states power to control the body, mind and "souls' of its subjects; and Norbert Elias's argument about the growth of "civilized sensibilities' in modern society that shape how punishment is dispensed (Wendy 2005, p.
Islamic countries, which practice the law, usually conduct their judicial processes while referring to the provisions stated by the law. Just like the secular law, Sharia law deals with issues touching on crime, economics, and politics as well as issues affecting an individual, such as hygiene, prayer, diet, fasting, and sexuality.
In some instances, the force majeure may merely suspend the parties’ obligations. Some events that may lead to the development of a force majeure include rainstorms, fire, civil unrest or even attacks by terrorist groups. A force majeure is important in that it helps contractual parties to avoid fulfilling massive liabilities that may in fact be impossible to perform in cases where the parties remain obliged legally as in the case of Jardinia Limited versus Southern Belles Limited.
For less serious cases, offenders may serve sentences in county jails; alternatively, they may receive less severe sanctions like community service. The law provides that when people commit crimes then the US Criminal Justice system oversees the case until one is found guilty or acquitted as appropriate.
The other objectives being the development of a cost effective delivery of healthcare, they also advance public discussions and are committed to the society through the harnessing the intellectual capacity of the university to develop, test and study efforts to help in the improvement of the well being of their employees, their dependants and retirees.
The government of Scotland tries to make sure that they help people by making sure that they are inculcating family values and trusts amongst each other and not making rules and regulations regarding what to do and how to behave with each other or raise their children.1 The laws which are designed for the family, in such laws the rules are regarding the responsibilities which are related to the couples, the parents along with the people who are a part of it and who participate in the children welfare.
Research on public procurement by Tabish indicates that there is not enough transparency in public transparency to ensure that losses do not occur in the pockets of greedy or fraudulent individuals.2 This is cited to be due to corruption, where research has shown that in India, the largest amount of funds lost in public procurement is the result of lack of transparency leaving loopholes for corrupt individuals to stash the cash or even collaborate with procuring agencies to make a kill from public funds.
In addition to this, immigrants and those who have a hearing impairment have the right to be present in court hearings that involves them, as the victims or as defendants. Therefore, the courts are then again obliged to provide translators who will effectively ensure communication barriers are broken in the courtroom.
The old paradigm was to be culturally-neutral in prescribing ways to control substance abuse, primarily alcohol and other drugs (AOD) where effort was maintained to project a politically-correct program that seemingly appears to be not in any way smacks of racial discrimination.