Alfonso Lopez, Jr., a 12th-grade student at Edison High School in San Antonio, Texas, carried into the school, on March 10, 1982m a revolver with several cartridges. Having been questioned by the school personnel, he admitted to possessing a gun. Later on, Lopez was arrested and charged for possessing a gun in a school.
It is evidently clear from the discussion that the elements necessary to establish premises liability are the defendant must possess the premises or land, the plaintiff must be an invitee or licensee, and there must be negligence or some other wrongful act. The most common type of premises liability case is the slip and fall case.
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Other laws such as family and criminal laws are left to the discretion of the state courts (Harp, 1954). If the separation of federal and state courts had not existed, then each state would be free to interpret the constitutional laws, as they deemed correct. In that case, there might be as much as fifty interpretations of the same law.
A Comparative Analysis between House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Shock Probation Abstract The essay aims to address a two-fold objective to wit: (1) to define and discuss house arrest, electronic monitoring, and shock probation, and (2) to compare and contrast house arrest, electronic monitoring, and shock probation and determine their effectiveness.
English Legal System English law is made up of six main sources (Winfield, 2000 p158). They are Common Law Equity Statutes Judicial Precedence (Jurisprudence) European Law & International Treaties and Laws Common Law refers to the consolidation of various legal codes and systems unique to various parts of Britain after the Norman's conquest.
The author states sthat the Specific legislative requirements which apply to former audit firm partners are found in Sub Section 324 CK. According to the requirements laid down, a former audit firm partner, who holds a position in a company of which he was previously the auditor and also had a position in that company.
It was in the year 1998 that the University of Wisconsin scientists developed the first human embryonic stem cell lines. The medical field is eager to explore this field because of the possibility of generating replacement tissues for cells and organs that are not functioning.
The ginger beer was in an opaque bottle, which prevented the contents of the bottle from clear sight. Mrs. Donoghue consumed the beer and later the remains of a decomposing snail floated in the glass when she poured the remaining beer into the glass. Because of the contaminated beer and the resulting nauseating sight, Mrs.
As a result, manual and electronic security breaches have been common organizational experiences. This paper seeks to discuss contemporary organizational issues that relates to security. Based on a newspaper article, the paper will identify some of the security issues facing organizations.
A Critical Analysis of Article 5 of UCP 600 Introduction The International Chamber of Commerce’s (ICC) Uniform Customs and Practice 600 (UCP 600) revised the practice rules relative to letters of credit in 2006 and thus replaced UCP 600 1993.1 Pursuant to Article 5 of UCP 600 cautions that banks do not deal with goods and services and are confined to dealing with documents.2 Therefore Article 5 of UCP 600 sets forth the rationale for the autonomous nature of the letter of credit and segregates if from the contract to which it relates.3 There are some problems that can arise from the autonomy of the letters of credit.
As a result, Lord Hanningfield was indicted for six charges of theft by false accounting. The peer claimed innocence citing an averaging out of his expenditures, explaining that he had claimed these within what was allowed by the law. The Chelmsford Crown Court found him guilty.
The first amendment of the US constitution protects the rights to freedom of religion and expression, at that the right to freedom of speech, press, assembly, and petition to the government for implied rights of belief. 14th amendment recognizes the sovereignty of persons born in the US and endeavors to protect their life, liberty, and property.
The author states that Patrick Atiyah’s book, Introduction to the Law of Contract, has been imperative in the spread of Contract law and thus enabling people understand the various concepts in the law and the rubrics for its effective running. Britain is one country that has embraced contract law with a lot of passion.
In addition to the expertise provided by professionals, it is nowadays important for organizations to have an IP strategy, or an IP portfolio management process that is aligned to their business processes (Shultz 1996). A clear Intellectual Property Strategy is of significant importance as an organization seeks to develop and exploit partnerships with other organizations.
The hospitality industry is a diverse and complex sector that highly contributes to the countries’ annual GDP and employment. The significance of the hospitality industry in the world economy has largely increased during the past decade. Growing significance in the world economy and the degree of diversity is the most attractive features of the hospitality industry to the graduates.
The movie shows that the African – American woman, Deborah was not a criminal in the actual sense of the term. The film deals with Black feminist criminology, where domination is judged along with marginalization, racism and victimization- all from the point of view of criminology (Potter, 2006, pp.
The author states that it is based on the concept that by increasing the opportunities for the minority populations, the existence gaps can be addressed. In its responses, the paper suggests that affirmative action is indeed necessary in addressing the current problems that are attributed to social categorizations.
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In the due course, various theories, assumptions and judgmental frameworks have been developed to obtain a rational and an in-depth understanding to the factors which fundamentally drive criminal activities within a society. No wonder, the assumptions of one particular theoretical framework differ significantly from the other when demonstrating the causes underlying the criminal offences.
International law serves as basic framework for international relations. The laws regulate the conduct of states in relation to each other. Law enforcement on the other hand refers to a system of investigating, apprehending and punishing those who violate the laws set by a nation.
The effect of the decision was that creditors of a company that had gone insolvent would not be able to sue the shareholders of the company for its outstanding debts: the doctrine of separate corporate personality was effectively entrenched by the House of Lords.
In this context, internal market is used to depict companies within the European Union who carry their activities within the region. In this means that companies within the European Union region who would want to do business within a defined country and to and from another European Union country are all covered under the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union (TFEU); Articles 34, 35 and 36 (Bertch, 2008).
War crimes trials are defined as trials of individuals that are charged with criminal violation of the customs and laws of war and international law principles. The practice of war crime trials started after the First World War when some of the German leaders were tried by a court in Germany for the crimes that they committed during World War I.
In businesses and work establishments, labor laws and employment regulations should be properly implemented and practiced in order to reduce conflicts and dispute among employers and the employees. A work environment that is regulated lawfully and fairly will likely become more effective and successful in many aspects.
The author states that arguments against the death penalty emerged only in the 1700s when few writers and philosophers including Italian scholar Cesare Beccaria began to question whether the death penalty is justice and ethical. They argued that capital punishment is unethical and barbaric.
It therefore becomes pertinent to analyze the tort’s claim act of California as this would help people that want to file a suit to understand the rudiments of the tort claims act for the state. It therefore becomes important for a resident of California to recognize when to file a claim that is to know when it becomes necessary to file a claim.
Moreover, it is wrong to surmise that making drugs illegal leads to an increase in their abuse. This statement can be established by comparing the number of alcoholics to the number of drug abusers. The former are much larger in number, and this drives home the fact that legalizing drugs would lead to a much larger number of drug addicts. A telling example is provided by the enactment of the US Narcotics Act of 1914, which resulted in a major decrease in the number of drug users (Clark).
According to the authors of this article, prisons have an outstanding influence on community-based correction methods and, therefore, to understand their evolution, one needs to consider this connection. As such, the focus of this article is on the development and stability of community based corrections in relation to their exclusive and dynamic relationship with the prison.
Also, the paper gives answers to why police supervision is indispensable in dealing with the code of silence in their organization. The study answers the question of whether the police organization is different from other organizations when it comes to practicing the code of silence.
As early as 2003, there was hardly any policy at all that governed the participation of transgendered persons in sports. Globally, the major objective of the International Olympic Committee’s sex verification was to prohibit male contestants from participating in female events.
In the rescue of employees’ safety was the introduction and approval of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 in Britain. Since the adoption of this Bill, the provisions therein have made it easy for employers to determine the scope of which they should cover to ensure safety in work places.
Further, the paper discusses how social disorganization satisfies the criteria for organized crime; this analysis comprises the examination of various relationships between organized crime and social disorganization. Finally, the paper examines the correlation between social disorganization and corruption to the development of organized crime.
There are laws that have existed in various European governments that are meant to govern and outline procedures and steps that can help in ensuring companies faced with insolvency do not close up. This involves putting such companies under administrative receivership; this implies putting the whole company under the watch and management of a secured creditor.
The following answers to their questions provide them with an understanding of their position when considering litigation.James Although the document looks like it was signed in good faith between your father and you, among others, you have caused an issue with your claim to the money that he promised you by your email to Matt concerning your father’s state of mind during the event.
e (exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement) (Mallor, Barnes, Bowers, & Langvardt, 2013, p. 456). The information could therefore be used to designing the most effective training and development program for employees according to their profiles, needs, and goals for improvement that are expected to be achieved.
The Aim of the Criminal Justice System is to protect the Public from Criminal The main objective of the Criminal Justice System (CJS) is to offer justice to all, by apprehending and punishing the offenders and assisting them to stop in indulging in further crimes and to rehabilitate them after their conviction while safeguarding the innocent public from such offenders1.
Monica invited both Charlie and Rachel back to her apartment for tea. While having tea and admiring the purchase’s Monica had made, Rachel proposed that they play a game, “truth or dare.” When it was Rachel’s turn, she chose a dare and Charlie challenged her to a game of throwing knives, where they-Charlie and Monica-would each throw one knife close to Rachel’s foot without hitting her.
The prosecutors in the case maintained that the suspect allured his wife (Eunice) to his store determined to murder her, and that the rest of his victims were merely circumstantial given that they got in the way.
This encouraged the trend of undisclosed marriages without parental permission and bigamous. Further, the wealthy and the affluent people took advantage of marrying underage girls, which lasted till 1740s (Dnes & Rowthorn 2002). In the year 1753, Marriage Act announced that all matrimonial ceremonies would be solemnized by the minister in a parish church or chapel of England for legal binding.
Such activities require several transactions to be made on credit basis. The receiver of credit is called the debtor, whereas the giver of credit is called the creditor. Especially in America, the general reliance of business transactions on credit has been dominant.This reliance has emphasized the need for bankruptcy laws and laws governing the dismissal of debt.
Personal property includes substances that can move, such as cars, money, clothes, and any immovable items such as jewelry. The real property law deals with immovable items and this includes houses and land (Brake, 2012). The laws that guide the operations of the real property are the 1925 law of property act.
The court has 27 judges drawn from the states. Eight Advocates –General, assist these judges. When hearing cases, it normally has panels of three, five, or thirteen judges. Its main role is to ensure that the law is observed, when interpreting and applying treaties of the European Union.
In other words, an individual will not be held accountable for a crime unless his or her conduct is defined by the criminal law as an offence and his/her culpability has been proven by virtue of a constitutionally fair criminal investigation and trial. The rule of law in criminal justice is therefore the main instrument of social control as it is intended to control the behavior of government and the governed.
He proposed that these leaders are effective in different scenarios, those who have a higher degree of orientation towards task are more effective during situations that are very difficult and in situations that are highly out of a leader’s control (Lussier, 2010, p.158).
This means that the monarch could and cannot overrule the parliament in its decisions. However, there are limitations to this supremacy. For example, according to Dicey, the general rule prevails that the laws that the Parliament has already passed do not bind the Parliament or its successors; they can alter them to suit different circumstance1.
This paper will examine the three modes of settling a dispute – negotiation, mediation and litigation. Negotiation is basically a dialogue between two parties in an effort to create an agreement between the two parties. It is most effective when both parties can see the other's side, each party has something to give the other, and the conflict is not high (Cohen, 2003).
This work deals with the description and analysis of political systems such as parliamentary democracy and presidential democracy. In this regard, strengths and weaknesses of both systems were taken up for discussion. In addition, the circumstances under which democracy will function better in countries with a presidential democracy, with a special focus on the US, were examined.
The study tells that notices to quit are not always given in a legal manner, nor are they subject to strict regulation. “On the same day a notice to quit dated 15th June 1967…[there was a notice to quit] duly served upon [someone]… [there was also a] stage involving the [legally questionable] demolition of…part of [a] building upon the land acquired from the London Bank of Australia Limited.”
The author of the text encompasses the idea of poverty and provides certain facts which prove that not only poverty can provoke crime. In order to specify the relationship between crime and poverty through evidence-based information, the study seeks to study the pattern of crime in the U.S., the community’s perception of crime.
The psychology of gang membership should be understood in order to be aware of potential violent conflicts that can erupt in the prison environment due to gang warfare. In prisons, the gang members organize primarily around racial and ethnic identities, while others argue that the violence inherent in prison institutions themselves cause prisoners to organize along gang lines for self protection.
The children were presumed dead after a while when they did not turn up. The case has been in court for more than thirty years. It is only this year that the case reached its peak (Henry, p. 19). This is with the presentation of evidence that linked the suspect to the murder charges.