It deals with various ways in which the investors of the companies gets themselves assured about receiving a return on their invested funds. Corporate governance primary is involved with answering the following questions: How the investors of a company manage to get returns on their invested amount from the managers of the company?
5 pages (1250 words)
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In other words, such investors feel that risk is intrinsic to any investment. This belief is somehow misconstrued as the risk to an investment is always relative to the price paid. Hence, instead of focusing on the uncertainty that an investment may face such as volatility, it is recommended that investors measure the risks associated with their investments by valuation, which has more importance to investors than risks (Pratt, 1998).
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AIB Plc, or Allied Irish Banks, along with its different subsidiary organizations is in the business of commercial banking as well as retail banking operating in Ireland. There are in all four different lines of businesses that the company is engaged in, and these are EBS, AIB UK, PBB for Personal and Business Banking, and CICB for Corporate Institutional and Commercial Banking.
In the short term, the 1 year return of FLCSX was 19.74% compared to 17.72% returns in the international index of S&P 500. The following table summarizes the performance in percentage returns of international index S&P 500 and FLCSX for different time horizons: Performance Review Period (Yrs) S&P 500 (%) FLCSX (%) 1 17.72 19.74 3 11.42 12.87 5 4.91 6.27 10 7.82 8.72 YTD 14.55 15.62 From the above summary of YTD returns of FLCSX and S&P 500 it can be said that in the long run as well as in the short run, the YTD returns of FLCSX were greater than that of S&P 500.
Finance and Accounting Concepts Introduction Accounting concepts play an important role in recording the financial transactions and is a discipline that provides certain information related to financial transactions. Accounting provides important financial information to a wide range of potential users who are able to make several economic decisions for the allocation of economic resources.
12 pages (3000 words)
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3). The indices are produced as a result of cooperation of S&P Dow Jones and RobecoSAM indices (DJSI, n.p.). In order to be included in the DJSI, the companies must meet economic, social and environmental criteria (DJSI Annual Review, p. 3). The indices apply a broad variety of country, regional and global DJSI benchmarks and thus, serve as an effective tool for investors focused on corporate sustainability oriented businesses (DJSI Annual Review, p.
Jim argued that “we simply decide without thinking much about the decision process.” This statement has a deep concern about what we may choose to do in our life. Therefore every individual should consider what has chosen to do otherwise he or she may end up regretting on the decision he made.
The purpose of this business is to provide animals a home when their owners are out of town for long periods. This is a prevalent problem within the Bloomington community because of all the part time residents who leave for various breaks, most notably, summer vacation when classes are over.
Credit risk is generally defined as the loss arising from failure by those under obligation, to honor the payments due from them. Many researchers consider probability of default as the pillar of credit risk modeling. Other components often sighted are loss severity and exposure at default.
The principles stated in Islamic finance are very old. Islamic banking rules and regulations are based on the teachings of Islam religion. In Islam, short-selling, gambling, or uncertain money investments for abnormal profit maximisation are strictly prohibited.
These changes are in the form of corporate strategy, business strategy and even in day to day operations. Before introducing the change, companies conduct in-depth analysis of its strengths as well as weaknesses. They also evaluate the external environment (political, economic, social, technical, legal and environmental) to identify external threats as well as opportunities.
This is an approach towards making ends meet at both the local firm level, or even at national level, the latter is usually with regards to the settlement of public sector dissensions. Collective bargaining is a formal process of reaching agreements which are written and kept secure for a specified period of time, and is not just a matter of ‘understanding’ between the two parties, but a legal agreement which can be referred to in case one side breaches the contract (Page, 2010).
“The fundamental success of a strategy depends on three critical factors: a firm’s alignment with the external environment, a realistic internal view of its core competencies and sustainable competitive advantages, and careful implementation and monitoring” (Porter, 1996).
An accountant may face several ethical challenges in regards to the revenue recognition of a firm. Accountants must abide by the generally accepted accounting principles at all times. An accountant who holds a license such as a CPA may receive a customer that contracts him for the service of preparing financial statements.
According to the essay to carry on business and stay competitive in today’s complex business environment, companies need always to keep on updating information relevant to costing, pricing, budgeting, estimating and so on. Pricing is an extremely important strategic issue since it is closely related to product positioning.
There are four major steps in budget making: preparation, legislative approval, executive implementation, and accounting and financial reporting. The first stage is the preparation or the drafting stage. The draft budget is compiled and submitted to the legislature for approval at this stage.
This scheme is better known as insurance. The existence of insurance has resulted in people living in a relaxed manner and in an environment that is conducive to run business. The Australian insurance industry generates billions of dollars in an annual basis, and it has employed thousands of people.
Corporation’s shareholders are taxed on dividends allocated by the corporation. Some corporations such as mutual funds are not taxed at the corporate level; in fact their shareholders are taxed on the corporation’s income. Domestic corporations are taxed at the state and federal level on their international income.
The author designed a probabilistic model to measure such relationship, including the measurement of stability and instability. The researcher explored the topic according to the assumption that firms that undertake mergers and acquisitions emerge stronger in the process.
ART I – Pension This section intends to carry out an analysis of how much an individual can earn by investing in life insurance companies. Essentially, investment in a life insurance requires apt application of life annuity principles. A life annuity refers to a system for distributing funds provided to the insurance firms by the annuity holders.
The research study is described as a process rather than an event to mean that in order for the researcher to successfully achieve the research aim that is set for the study, there are series of tasks that must be performed. There could not be a singular activity that could make the researcher achieve the research aim (Adams and Lamptey, 2009).
Since a large amount of the wealth of the people of the United States is invested in the stock markets, an adverse position of the markets will affect the net-worth of the individual. Thus the investors will tend to cut their spending and this will be reflected in the reduction of the housing investments by the consumers.
This report represents and analyzes the seminar 3 which was related to Ratio analysis and their implications in the real world. Ratio analysis is an important way for researchers and financial analysts to analyze the performance of the firm against their past performances and at the same time ratio analysis is helpful in comparing different firms in the industry regardless of the size of the organization.
In this context, the key notion is risk. The banking system marked by technical, financial and communications progress is part of the international picture and subscribes to financial integration and globalization. Market trends show a wide range of banking risks, which taken together could lead to the collapse of the whole system.
S. (1997) ‘Science Policy and Technology Policy in a Competitive Economy’ International Journal of Social Economics Vol. 24 Nos.7/8/9 pp.723-740 Overview Metcalf considers science and technology as required disciplines informing innovation policy. He advocates a combination of industry and academia to generate knowledge and technology support systems with policy providing process guidelines.
From a marketing perspective, this is referred to as marketing audit or environmental scanning (Lancaster & Reynolds 1999). Both the external as well as internal environments have a bearing on the way an organisation operates.
The pleasure of this program is that the cost and reward exist but they are also reversed according to social convention. Cost, Reward and Roles are reversed according to societal norms. As an example in an early series, Ben, the dog, is walking Stewie. Stewie goes poop and proceeds to tell Ben in his intellectual voice, "Pick it up".
Methyl mercury, inorganic mercury compounds such as mercuric chloride and mercuric cyanide, mercury vapor, ethyl mercury, phenyl mercury and hair mercury are the chemical forms of mercury to which people are commonly exposed. Major routes of exposure to mercury compounds are inhalation of contaminated air, ingestion of contaminated food and through eye or skin contact.
It shall also cover the nature of their work, training, other qualifications and the employment growth of this profession and the opportunities that this profession brings to paralegals. This report shall also present the 10 critical skills that every paralegal or a legal assistant should master to excel in this profession.
Children in today’s generation are ‘digital’ in the true sense of the word as they are growing up amidst a highly technological environment and are surrounded by innovative technological gadgets which are specifically targeted at them. The growing market for children’s video games, and immense growth in the field of technology has led to the further strengthening of the interactive media, thus taking away the importance of print media.
The 2010 Deloitte survey on narrative reporting found that the average length of the annual report was 101 pages. As per the analysis of Accounting Standards Board (ASB), annual reports of organizations contain immaterial clutter that distracts the reader from the most important information.
In spite of the recession faced in US, which hit them badly, the retail sector was the one which was less affected. The paper studies in detail regarding the major changes which the industry has encountered and also studies the operation of few of the key players of the global brands like Walmart, Costo.
A contribution is a reward or compensation to a common fund or compilation. It can be referred to as the payment which an individual offers for any particular purpose. Besides, the entire contributed amount of an individual is calculated based on price and cost. Moreover, contribution varies from one individual to another.
Obviously, as a leader in retail, it must be able to adequately manage its capital. There are a few stores—including Murray and Gartner—from which Lawrence’s goods are procured. In order to issue a recommendation for Lawrence Sports, a few things might be in order to mention first.
Financial accounting mainly focus on summaries past financial dealings which are reported periodically in contrast, management accounting evaluate past, present and future information which are reported continually to be used in making appropriate decisions.
But to survive in the long run a company needs to maximize its shareholder’s wealth. To fulfill this objective the concept of corporate governance becomes essential. Corporate governance is a collection of principles and systems that helps the company to add value and increase its shareholder’s wealth (Thomson, 2009, p.1).
Accounting Companies should be required to use the same accounting method for inventory. That would ensure that there is no exploitation of the customers because of the inventory methods that are been used by companies. The other advantage of that is the fact that there will be uniformity in the reporting of financial statements by the various companies.
3 pages (750 words)
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, Literature review
The report also presents a summary and critical review of the layout of an article chosen for this purpose which is titled “Educational Validity of Business Gaming Simulation: A Research Methodology Framework”, which is authored by Andrew J. Stainton, Johnnie E.
This helps in delivering financial information in a positive manner with the help of the accounting standards laid down by the various boards and organization and the legal requirements. Legal requirements are essential for the accurate and financial reporting are quite important to understand the impact of financial reporting on the organizational outcome.
This situation has been attributed to the rapid changing nature of consumer behaviour, where most consumers have become highly knowledgeable of the product and services they receive from service providers, making them highly critical of the selection of companies to work with (Candice, 2010).
Profit maximization includes reducing expenses and the expenditures of a company. This also depends on the business model that a company chooses to register for. The available choices include electing between a corporation and a partnership. Each of these voted have implications attached to them.
Types of capital control include exchange controls that prevent or limit the buying and selling of national currency at the market rate, caps on the allowed volume for the international sale or purchase of various financial assets, transaction taxes such as the proposed Tobin tax, minimum stay requirements, requirements for mandatory approval.
This research will focus on the methods of valuations that Expand Ltd may use as it seeks to either merge with another company or acquire it. The report will refer to stock market valuations and how they work. This report will also discuss the recent acquisition of the Skype by Microsoft Corporation, an American multinational corporation.
The Christmas season is busiest because it lasts for just under a month (The Free Library 2009). Bainbridge (2011) indicates that is the season for parties. During this time people are expected to stock up on food and drinks and so it is a good time to launch ‘PowaPak’.
Essentially, Popper’s deductive theory sets out to draw distinctions between theoretical assumptions and empirical analyses. In short, Popper rejects the view that empirical analyses are used to prove or disprove a theory, but rather puts forth the view that empirical analyses are used to validate or justify a theory.
A profit and loss account provides an account of the income and outgoings of the business during an accounting period, usually twelve months. The income of a business is usually sales revenue, with the direct costs of generating that income deducted from the total to give the gross profit.
This has specific uses in reverse engineering where a well designed model can be reverse engineered to ascertain its dimensions. This is ideal for manufacturing components where the technical backup to produce such a product may be lacking. However, in the field of quality and process control, this could be used to ascertain the number of defective parts or the number of components that are not in line with the required set of standard dimensions.
However, even much earlier, the article of Fisher (1973) confirmed that the theory has been very alive and was even the core of Fisher’s (1973) contributions to the theory. As recent or late as 2005, the article of Leibowitz and Bova contributed to modern portfolio theory in the area of “allocation betas.” This confirms that modern portfolio theory continues to be the benchmark theory of many analysts.
In order to achieve this purpose, it is imperative that these statements possess certain qualities which can ensure their usefulness for the various users of financial information (Epstein et al, 2010). In this paper, I have made an attempt to first briefly discuss what constitutes financial statements and what implications these statements possess for their users, and then analyze some of the essential characteristics of financial information in detail along with the problems that affect the qualitative characteristics of materiality, prudence, neutrality, relevance and reliability In addition to that, this paper also focuses on the various ways in which these qualities may come into confli
Securitization is a form of structured finance where an issuer creates a financial instrument by combining financial assets based on the cash flows and risks associated with a given asset or a pool of assets and then marketing different tiers of the repackaged instruments to investors. Securitization accommodates all financial assets.