As an anion, thiosulfate is tetrahedral in shape and is depicted by replacing one of the oxygen atoms by a sulfur atom in a sulfate anion. The S-S distance suggests a single bond, an indication of a significant negative charge borne by the sulphur
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that matter can go through any physical or chemical reaction, but the total mass of the reactants and the products will remain equal (Rogers et al., wisc.edu).
The experiment aims to illustrate the Law of Conservation of Mass by reacting zinc metal and iodine to synthesize zinc
Further, the biggest disadvantage of fossil fuels is that its increasing consumption leads to global warming and environment degradation. In this perspective, it is crucial to find alternative sources of energy to replace fossil fuels for our needs. The paper aims at
The author of the text stresses that after three titrations with FeSO4.7H2O, the solution Ce4+ comes to standard. Furthermore, 1M HCL and nanopore water form its dissolving agent. Notably, estimation of electrode potential at the end-point is possible, and it is by using the Nernst equations and the formal potential values.
The gel also contains a protective derivative that does not cause negative side effects to the ageing individuals. The most significant element of the hydogel is its capacity to disperse in water because of the
In this experiment, the beer lambert law was considered to help in determining the concentration of the unknown solutions.
UV-VS spectroscopy is a concept referring to absorption spectroscopy, usually through the
The process of flocculation involves the formation of flocs through clinging together of solid matter in solution. Coagulation results due to widening of solid material in solution making separation possible
To start with, As a forensic scientist needs to understand that fair outcomes by the criminal justice are dependent on the professional processing of the information provided. Therefore, asking the right question in order to professionally come out with
It seeks to classify and research on chemicals. A lab instrument that is used to carry out this research is the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The Fourier transform Infrared spectrometer gives an electromagnetic spectrum that is
the periodic table; thus, making it build and possess certain significant characteristics for its operations such as being a highly reactive non-metallic element. Subsequently, oxygen is widely used as an oxidizing agent through its readiness to form compounds (in most cases
Moreover, matter found in a different locality varies in composition, regardless of the chemical elements that make up its compound. The soil’s exposure to chemicals used for researching in the laboratory causes the difference in its composition. At home,
The resistance of a tin coated glass was measured using a multi-meter so as to identify the conducting surface. With the identified conducting side facing upwards, the glass was taped on three sides using the same thickness of tape. Fingerprints or oils were then wiped off
Each water molecule can potentially form four hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules. There are exactly the right numbers of + hydrogens and lone pairs so that every one of them can be involved in hydrogen bonding ( Fox, Marye, and James Whitesell,
The SNP genomic distribution has no homogeneity. It always occurs in those regions that are non-coding. It has minimum occurrence in the regions that are coded. This is a case where the natural selection acts and fixes the SNP allele with favorable adaptation
Thereafter, the volatile liquid was heated in a water bath. The flask was tilted slightly to make it easy to see when all the volatile liquid had vaporized. Subsequently, the temperature of the water bath was
In 1962, just 14 years after Paul Hermann received the Noble prize for his discovery of the "high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods", author and environmentalist Rachel Carson alerted the American public to the irreversible chain of evil introduced by the notorious pesticide.
The author explains that on a fundamental level, polyssarcharides are defined as polymeric chains composed of mono- or di-saccharides bound together by glycosidic bonds, a special type of covalent bond. Carbohydrates possess a hemiacetal group that contains a reactive anomeric carbon that readily reacts in certain low pH cellular environments.
If it so happens, that in a chemical reaction one or more reactants or products are gases, gas laws must be considered for the calculation. The Ideal Gas Law states that;
where P is the pressure (in atm), V is the volume (in Q), n
It is a substituted benzene derivative. It is an aromatic hydrocarbon commonly used for livestock and as a solvent. To test the presence of Toluene, different analytical methods are used, to identify and quantify the presence of Toluene. This paper
Reaction one involved dissolving of sodium hydroxide in water; Reaction 2 involved reaction between sodium hydroxide and dilute hydrochloric acid; reaction 3 involved reaction between sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid solution. The use of Styrofoam
Other people who are at a higher risk of the exposure include trucking company workers and automobile operators. Such occupations involve using diesel powered machines. Studies show that about 1.35 individuals are exposed to the toxins in their work places in the
For reactions occurring in solutions, the solvent exerts an effect as a consequence of it being a condensed phase, with its molecules very close together even in case of a chemically inert medium (Arnaut, Formosinho and Burrows 225).
In fluorescence quenching, a reaction takes
Although many people of polymers as mere plastics used in making household objects and packaging, polymers have a variety of application in everyday life. Polymers and composites, i.e., materials that result from a combination of more than two
This paper discusses some of the physical and chemical properties of benzene, its uses and hazards.
Benzene is a nonpolar molecule with a molecular weight of 78.11 g/mole. It is also known as benzol and mineral naphtha, and has a chemical reference number
In effect, this evaporation of the water due to a humid atmospheric temperature cools me down. Sweating is basically our body’s internal cooling system and can be likened to a car’s radiator which cools the engine when it
Cyclohexanol is a secondary alcohol that undergoes dehydration by an E1 mechanism. This molecule is related to cyclohexane with replacement of one hydrogen atom of a hydroxyl group. The major intermediate of this
In our daily life, oil is applicable in almost all sectors. One study showed that at least each year, about 18 million tonnes of crude oil are processed to form some synthetic material (Thompson and Manning, 1995). About 40% of all textiles require oil. In making CDs
The bleaching effect is achieved through oxidation or reduction process. The most commonly used bleach agents made of chlorine compounds decolorizes by oxidation. Oxidation refers to the process whereby the compound removes oxygen from one compound or
There birds fed on small fish and bred on the shores. This behavior of the birds was unanticipated and instigated a wave of curiosity in the scientists and researchers.
About two and a half decades later, in
The author of the text comments on the peculiarities of fuel cells. Notably, all fuel cells contain an anode, the positive electrode, a cathode the negative electrode and an electrolyte-a liquid that allows charges to move between the two sides of the fuel cell. And this electrolyte has to be in liquid form to reduce hydrogen molecule leakage via the container’s walls.
Over a long period, the process of aluminum manufacture involved a cumbersome process that required lot of energy. The last century has however realized a tremendous turn around in this matter as today new
In the current world, there are many different types of tetracycline antibiotics that are widely used. Tetracycline antibiotics were obtained after the systematic screening of soil. They are broad spectrum in action and are effective against a number of gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, and Chlamydia.
The elimination of any of the above conditions will result to no corrosion.
Water corrosion is one of the common types of corrosion. At normal atmospheric temperatures the moisture from the air is just enough
According to the author, the toxicity tests have proved that resveratrol is a strong anti-oxidant and can neutralize pro-oxidant adverse effects regardless of their high concentrations. Tests that prove the ineffectiveness of the compound are not realistic. The FDA permits "skip-lot" testing which, also allows manufactures to avoid safety testing.
X-rays are used in the examination of the lattice structure of crystals along with the molecular arrangement of the substance. Gamma rays are utilized in the examination of the nucleus of any atom, which enables their identification as they produce unique energy. UV rays
Ammonium compounds are identified by an ammonium ion in their composition. They quickly lose stability when exposed to heat, hence decompose in two ways. One of them is the decomposition of the ammonium compound into its respective initial compounds that were used to form it. Only simple compounds of ammonia that are regarded as less hazardous.