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Management comprised of the following functions namely planning, organising, directing, staffing, co-ordinating, reporting and budgeting (Thenmozhi, n.d.).
The X-Y theory was first conceptualised by Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, in the year of 1960. It refers the statutory and simple rules of managing people. There are two theories X and Y. In X theory, the nature of the persons are lazy. Mostly they dislike work and try to avoid it therefore most of the employees are subject to negative reinforcement and threatened by it. Such persons avoid responsibility and prefer to be directed. The exactly opposite picture can be shown in Theory Y. Here, people accept and seek responsibility. To achieve the organisational objective people usually apply self control and direction. Even, they are also rewarded for their commitment (Business Ball, n.d.).
William Ouchi had developed Z theory in 1981. Basically this theory is referred to as ‘Japanese’ management style. This theory advocates the combination of theory Y along with the modern Japanese management. It indicates a large amount of freedom and trust with worker and it has been assumed that workers have a strong interest and loyalty (Business Ball, n.d.).
A series of studies had been conducted at the Western Electronic Hawthorn Works from 1927 to 1932. Here, the professor Elton Mayo had experienced the impact of work conditions in the employees’ productivity. He had started this through examining the environmental and physical influence of the work place and then he moved towards the psychological aspects and its impact on the employee motivation. The outcome of the study exhibits that the employee productivity is fuelled by the psychological stimulus.
It can be applied in the practical life also. Suppose, a management trainee has joined in an organisation and the management provide him training, separate work code etc. Thus, silently the
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Educational leaders are facing challenges in their organizations that will require them to manage, change, and transform their organizations. According to Leithwood (2008), leadership is not so much a stand-alone function as a catalyst for other functions.
The purpose of this study was to answer these questions by studying whether individuals who were already entrepreneurs had more motivation to start a new venture again, over those who did not have experience. Also, the authors wanted to know whether serial entrepreneurs had a “higher probability” of moving into entrepreneurship from employment.
The author states that Jobs and Gates are two renowned leaders of our time in the business world. As leaders, they also show different styles in leadership. It therefore remains a critical point to emphasize that the very nature of their specific approaches as leaders can be explained by how they meet the needs of their organization.
Leadership skills and knowledge, however, processed by a leader. These leadership skills and knowledge mainly influenced by beliefs, character, values, and ethics; these factors contribute to leadership process. Leadership process has four principal factors that are the leader, situation, communication, and followers.
It assists in making people gain popularity as well as gain the ability to get things done. It is useful for persons who use the mode of luring people in order to be successful, for example salespersons. I have discussed the analysis of this book based on organization behavior research.
According to the paper developing organizational vision is very important since it provides the school staff members with a feeling of unity in terms of having a set of future goals and directions. Since each of the educational leadership style has its own purpose and limitation, a competitive leader is expected to be creative in terms of being able to integrate each of the leadership style that could enable the leader to meet the challenges with dealing a diverse group of individuals.
In 2002, Ken Blanchard updated the concept to ‘Situational Leadership II’. The Situational life cycle leadership approach holds that there is not one single leadership approach that fits all applications. Implementation of
include attitudes, prejudice norms (professed influences that important others may exert on the execution of behavior), and apparent behavioral control (Ajzen, 1991).
He suggested that the ability to reflect on action so as to connect in a process of continuous learning was
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