Business Research Methods I. Literature Review The Theory of Planned Behaviour First proposed by Icek Ajzen in 1985, this theory is in turn based on the earlier Theory of Reasoned Action posited by both Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) in the course of their studies on attitude and behaviour…
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Generally speaking, a course of action that one intends to do will almost always be done (Ajzen and Fishbein 1975). The key addition present in the later Theory of Planned Behaviour as explained by Miller (2005) is that perceived behavioural control now comes into play. The reason behind said addition is that while people may really want to follow through on a certain course of action, they may lack the confidence or control to do so, or are otherwise being held back by other variables – to quote the Bible, ‘the spirit may be willing, but the flesh is weak’. An instance where this comes to play can easily be seen in the case of someone who tries and fails to diet. Only those who are disciplined enough can actually succeed in this endeavour; all too often, it is more likely that the person will eventually succumb to the temptation of bingeing. Clearly in this case, one needs the behavioural control to say ‘no’ to the seeming siren call of the buffet table and to focus on his diet. In other words, it is not just one’s personal attitudes and perceptions that now decide what one is going to do. While these still count for something, and in fact are still the deciding factor in whether or not a certain action will be done, social pressures and one’s sense of control will now count for something as well. In this way, one’s decisions are no longer solely dependent on his own perceptions and feelings on the situation. Instead, one will now take into account how society views the respective choices at hand, and how well he can commit or follow through on a given outcome (Cooke and Sheeran 2004). The latter part is especially important – which is the reason for its addition to the theory in the first place. As mentioned by the aforementioned Bible verse, we may not always follow through on an action that we are inclined towards (Armitage and Conner 2001). Otherwise, for instance, individuals should have been able to instantly follow through on their intent to take a certain course of action. Someone who desired to quit smoking should definitely be able to do so immediately, but may be hampered by doubts on whether or not he will be able to quit – if this happens, he really will not be able to quit. Not only that, but one’s perceived and therefore actual behavioural control can also be swayed by the perceptions and opinions of those around him, which may sometimes manifest, among other things, as peer pressure (Ajzen 1985). As anyone in real life will admit, relatives, friends and coworkers inadvertently sway their decisions in voicing out their own viewpoints on the matter. That said, some of these individuals will have more influence on decisions concerning certain areas; for example, decisions regarding one’s family will of course be influenced most by relatives and family, as they are the ones directly concerned. And consequently, the biggest influence on one’s career moves will be his bosses and colleagues. Social norms, on the other hand, are much more varied, being described by Schulz et al (2007) as being either descriptive or injunctive in nature. Descriptive norms describe the behaviour of a particular group, and include stereotypical statements such as how x out of y people prefer a certain brand, or something similar. Meanwhile, injunctive norms are more subtle, and refer to certain cues or signals about how a
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(“Business Research Methods (SPSS) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words - 1”, n.d.)
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(Business Research Methods (SPSS) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 Words - 1)
“Business Research Methods (SPSS) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 Words - 1”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/macro-microeconomics/1424590-business-research-methods-spss.
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