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Taxation - Essay Example

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Name Subject Date Political philosophies and Taxation There are various political philosophies in the world, and each of them possesses a considerably different view on the role of government in ensuring equality through taxation and other initiatives…
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Download file to see previous pages... In such a society, every member has the capacity to identify what is good, and has the right to discuss the concept with others and make necessary changes based on what is considered as the best for the society. Thus, it is clear that Rawlsian liberalism will support some kind of basic structure that is just. In sharp contrast, conservatism as a political philosophy advocates for the retention of the traditional social orders and institutions. Generally, the traditional conservatives oppose modernism and want to return to the traditional systems (Muller 36). A look into the history of Great Britain proves that conservatives like Burke justified aristocracy and the social order in order to preserve tradition, and for such people, community and social harmony were more important than social reforms. Over the years, conservatism took various forms with increased and decreased intensity, like liberal conservatism, conservative liberalism, libertarian conservatism, fiscal conservatism, green conservatism, cultural and social conservatism and so on (Muller 3). A look into the history of conservatism in the United States will show that its main characteristics over the years were support for traditional system, anti-communist attitude, demand for low taxes, limited rules and regulations, and a free market. In addition, one can see conservatives do not hesitate to criticize various environmental issues (Schneider, 45). This attitude was clearly exhibited by the stringent opposition to the rising role of government in health care. Thus, one gets an idea that generally, conservatism is against taxation. Liberalism and taxation Liberalism can be described as the political ideology which favors social progress by improvising laws instead of revolution. This social progress will touch all spheres including social, political and economic rights. That means this social philosophy advocates the removal of inequalities in all these spheres. According to Rawls theory of justice, states should possess enough power to take necessary steps to ensure that the poorest in society are as well-off as they can be. Rawls points out in his theory that an unequal distribution of wealth and income is acceptable if those at the bottom of the society are better off than it is possible under any other distribution (Rawls 85). According to liberalism as suggested by Rawls, it is necessary for the members in a society to decide a just social contract. Also, the scholar points out that it is necessary to eliminate the possibility of any morally arbitrary bargaining advantages from influencing the Basic Structure. In order to achieve this end, the scholar points out that all the bargainers in the society need to be kept behind a veil of ignorance (Rawls 113). That means the members are not aware about their natural gifts, social class background, and such other factors. These members would agree to two principles in general; firstly, each person has an equal right to the most extensive liberties, and secondly, social and economic inequalities should be arranged in such a way that the least advantaged gets the greatest benefit (Rawls 143). Thus, the Difference principle as proposed by Rawls is the very basis of the claim that taxation will be welcomed by liberalism. This principle claims that society can initiate such projects which require giving more power to some people in terms of income and status if the initiative meets two criteria. Firstly, it can offer a better life to the worst off by ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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