The author explains that a promoter refers to a person who assists by procuring capital or otherwise, in promoting commercial or financial enterprises. A promoter main duty is to offer sufficient funding or capital for the company and to ensure that all the formalities required by the statute of incorporation are met.
The promoter is assumed to have executed without utmost good faith. This means that disclosure of their activities is the most important issue and they must work within the objectives of the promoters and must use their skills knowledge for the best of the firm. A promoter is any person involved in the planning to incorporate.
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Business organisations of present era are dealing with highly competitive environment. For the better implementation of business policies, vision and to attain the desired mission, management of every organisation comes up with sets of plan termed as strategies which further promises sustainable growth of the business.
This paper critically examines the general approach to measuring capital adequacy levels of banks as per the new standards implemented by the Basel III. The paper subsequently discusses the drawbacks of the Basel II standards that were exposed during the 2008 worldwide financial catastrophe and which consequently led to the development of the Basel III standards.
The research studies interest rates, inflation, 10-Year treasury yields, currency exchange rate movements, exports-imports and various economic indicators of US and South Africa such as unemployment and education. The foreign exchange risk has been analyzed if the new business revenue is going to be exposed to various types of exchange rate risks.
An Owner Controlled Insurance Program (OCIP) is a scheme through which an owner of a project tries to provide diverse types of insurances to contractors as well as subcontractors in United States. It is a recognized insurance acquiring/purchasing option that provides risk coverage to insurance owners.
For South Africa to expand its businesses to other nations it has learned of the environment of the global markets. There are also factors that will affect international business, they are, cultural, political and economic factors. Political events in are of great concern because they influence the cost of doing business, the social and economic stability of countries, the accessibility to the human and non human resources (Fung, et al, 32).
The author states that Eugene Fama in 1970 developed the concept of market efficiency on the basis of EMH (efficient market hypothesis). He suggested that at any given time the prices of stocks are purely dependent on the information present in the stock market regarding stock or the overall market.
The following study discusses the various methods by which leases are presently differentiated and accounted for in accordance with SSAP 21, the reason and content of ASB statement of codes, the criticism of the approach adopted by the present accounting standard and at last the amendments to the current accounting standard which have been proposed in light of this criticism.
“Modern corporations are created by persons, but they are created in the image of their creators” (Donaldson, 1982, p. 3). Despite the fact that they are created by fiction of law, it is corporations that have shaped the way we live and continue to govern our society, economy, and environment.
The author states that ordinary residence indicates a higher degree of permanence when compared to the residence. An individual is considered to be ordinarily resident if residence in the UK is of a habitual nature. Therefore, if that person goes abroad for a period constituting a full tax year the individual is regarded as remaining a resident.
Law requires that all public companies present financial statement at the end of every financial period. Financial statements presented by corporations are as results of proper book keeping and independent auditing.
Starting a new venture or moving to another country is not an easy task because the investor or the company not only has to face usual risk that a business faces but it has to deal with the exchange rate risk or translation risk (Gitman, 2003).
Foreign exchange is one of the major challenges that multinational enterprises have to reckon with. Failure to come up with better ways of managing foreign exchange risk might significant lead to foreign exchange losses that will adversely reduce the profitability of the company and affect the company’s financial performance.
The author states that the leverage ratio for the minimum risk-based capital requirement was initially 2% and the increased to 4.5% meant to help the situation. However, in measuring total risk-based capital, the committee has retained the framework that was adopted initially in determining risk-based capital.
According to the paper marketing strategies are integral to maintaining a competitive edge as a product or particular brand must “measure up to a threshold of acceptable quality and be consistent with buyer behaviour, preferences and expectations”. The marketing strategy determines the strategic objectives of the business and also centres it as a market-oriented system designed to fulfil consumer needs.
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Boeing is a considered the world’s biggest aerospace company and top manufacturer of commercial jetliners, defense, space and security systems (Boeing in Brief, 2011). The company has 63,000 employees around the world and worth $32 billion (Boeing Defense, Space, & Security, 2011).
This research aims to evaluate and present primary reasons and motives of an organization going for merger, various types of bid methodologies used by companies and the tactics for each, the concept of merger waves and analyze the reasons behind the same as either of technological shocks or availability of sufficient liquidity in the market to facilitate continual mergers.
The company is headquartered in Michigan, U.S.A but has received popularity worldwide and it became a public limited company in late 2004. It has branches in all the major cities of the world including London, New York and Kuala Lumpur. The corporation was founded in 1960s and is now the second largest Pizza chain in the U.S.
For Strinidal to expand its businesses to other nations it has learned of the environment of the global markets. There are also factors that will affect international business, they are, cultural, political and economic factors. Political events in Strinidal are of great concern because they influence the cost of doing business, the social and economic stability of countries, the accessibility to the human and non human resources.
This study identifies the main causes of credit risk for Techcombank before and after the implementation of the new risk management regime. Results of this research will form an important basis in understanding the concept of credit risk, how it occurs in the banking institutions and how it can be prevented.
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Microfinance is usually considered as the “provision of small loans” (Labie & Armendariz, p. 83) and other monetary services to somewhat underprivileged individuals as well as to small ventures, in developing nations and the past communist nations of Eastern along with Central Europe and Asia.
The performance is not related to the nature of an industry, instead it was driven by the quality and strategy of management. Good strategy by management can produce good results, on the other hand, poor decision and strategies may end with poor performance.
For many years different organisations, agencies and financial analysts have worked on developing their own conceptual framework however there has been no one common conceptual framework which has been accepted by everyone (Kaplan, & Atkinson, 1998). Considering this situation, in the year 1976 FASB started working to develop a common conceptual framework which could become the basis for accounting standards and resolve different controversies regarding financial reporting (Hines, 1991).
Contemporary Management Accounting System Table of Contents Overview 3 The Concept of Management Accounting 5 The Drivers for the Changing Role of Management Accounting Practices 7 The Contemporary Business Environment 8 Role of Management Accountants in Contemporary Organizations 10 References 14 Overview Anthony G.
The author explains that segregation of duties, also known as SOD, is paramount in today’s information technology spectrum as one considers: business risks from the standpoint of an IT auditor in an organization; control mechanisms which can be implemented for more effective auditing procedures.
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The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are a set of guidelines that are sued to guide accountants and financial professionals in preparation and reporting financial information. This paper will discuss the IFRS in terms of its basic information; by discussing its foundation, and how it was formed.
This project highlights the different segments of strategic management accounting including the performance indicators used by the University of Newland. To assess the strategic position of the university the internal and external analysis has been done in order to assess the organisational and educational environment as a whole.
In the world, every single person has their own interest and negotiation is a process through which the person can save one’s interest. Negotiation is a part of the day-to-day life. Through the process of negotiation both the parties involved can have their rights to save their own interests.
The research presents a thorough analysis of the basic difference between Islamic and conventional financing methods through literature analysis and effective research methods. The primary research collected from respondents helped in understanding their views and opinions on Islamic and conventional financing methods.
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1 Chapter 1 4
1.1 Introduction 4
1.2 Nature of the Issue 5
1.3 Research Question 6
1.4 Research Objective 7
2 Chapter 2 8
2.1 Literature Review 8
2.1.1 Theory of Externalities 8
2.1.2 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Clean-up 10
2.1.3 Economic Policies of Government 11
From the paper it is evident that a global approach to regulate corporate governance will not benefit multinational companies, because economic as well as political aspects differ from one country to the other. The globalisation, which aimed the integration of the whole world economy, caused far reaching troubles to many economies.
The Saudi Arabian government is politically divided into fourteen emirates also known as provinces. These emirates are headed by brothers, sons, nephews and next of kin of the King who currently is king Abdullah.
This research will attempt to identify and evaluate the causes of the 2008-2011 Global Financial Crises; to evaluate the relationship between world economic growth and liberalization and also consider the variability in world economic growth and liberalization/protectionism; and to recommend policies on how the world can escape from this and prevent future crisis.
The author states that the FTSE management has a wider range of knowledge and experience in dealing with the current volatility and difficult times and turmoil, for instance during the recent economic crisis that hit the world did not rudely shake the UK stock exchange drastically as the management, and through its expertise had hedged the risks.
The company was formed in 1985 by Kenneth Lay, after the merger of Houston natural gas and inter-north. It was a natural gas, energy trading, and electrical utilities company which was based in Houston Texas. Before its bankruptcy, Enron employed roughly 21,000 people.
Many researchers have studied the impact of changes in oil prices on other stocks in order to provide investors an idea of where to invest and avail the maximum returns. Sauter and Awerbuch assimilated the findings of all major papers before 2002 on the relationship of oil prices with economic activity and stock prices.
This research essay will study the how the auditor’s independence is impacted especially with the level of audit fees with particular emphasis to the FTSE 100 companies in UK. Many empirical studies have found that there is a close nexus between the high audit fees and auditor’s connivance with corporate to window dress their accounts.
It is treated as in important source of income for different countries. Global foreign direct investment (FDI) is the amount investment made by different Transnational Corporations (TNCs) in different countries of the world. There are generally two different types of investments which are: Inward foreign direct investment (FDI), and Outward foreign direct investment (FDI) This resulting sum of these two types of foreign direct investment is known as ‘net foreign direct investment (FDI) flow’, which can be either negative or positive (Wheeler, & Mody, 1992).
Four financial advantages are associated to attaining an MBA degree: a better initial income, better reimbursement expansion, more steady continuing service, and a privileged possibility of taking part in the labor force (Kim et al, 1986).
PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP is the auditor of the Bank of America. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC) is the firm’s registered public accounting firm and they conduct the audit of the business. The auditors (PwC) are recognized worldwide and are very popular in the auditing department.
The key assumptions in the study are: 1)The stocks chosen for analysis are representative of the sectors as they account for most market capitalisation in each sector; 2) By studying the causality relationship between oil prices and stock prices, we can reliably conclude on the influence of oil prices on stocks; 3) The impact of oil prices on stock prices is a constant phenomenon and not a “one-time” effect or a switch-on/switch off effect.
The author states that the loss that amounts is in the loss of cash or amount paid for the option. Determinants of an option are stated as stock price, volatility, strike price, risk-free (short term) interest rate and time to the expiration. The contract, in this case, is called the option contract.
The paper highlights expectation gap and the framework of extended audit which could make the auditor’s report more informative for the general public so that they can make more informed decision. The term expectation gap signifies the difference between the expectation of the some people who have knowledge about some particular thing and the expectation of the people who depends upon the knowledge of the former.
The main feature of Floating rate here is the automatic readjustment of a currency price to the level required in order to equal the supply and demand for the currency. In this way, it clears the market. This creates an automatic equilibrium in the balance of payments; the capital account balance offsets the current account balance.
This paper covers the entire area of long term financing which the Expansion Plc can consider. Along with the various sources of financing, the cost associated with the various sources, associated risks, positive and negative side of each of the popular sources have been discussed in order to identify the suitability of each source with the Expansion Plc.