Keg of Beer during Hunting and Gathering. African Society - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Societies in most parts of the world have transformed over ages as a result of new technological and cultural discoveries. The environment plays a pivotal role in adaptation and variations of these human cultures…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.9% of users find it useful
Keg of Beer during Hunting and Gathering. African Society
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Keg of Beer during Hunting and Gathering. African Society"

Keg of Beer during Hunting and Gathering African Society Societies in most parts of the world have transformed over ages as a result of new technological and cultural discoveries. The environment plays a pivotal role in adaptation and variations of these human cultures. It also provides an opportunity for individuals to manipulate the environment resulting in societal transformation. This transformation is what is referred to as civilization. There are various modes of civilizations that have occurred in the world to date. These include the ancient Chinese civilization, Egyptian civilization, Greek and Roman civilization and the 18th to 19th century African civilization (Spielmann 175). In Africa, for instance, the civilization process began at the start of the 18th century when missionaries started trooping to Africa with an aim of spreading the Christian faith. This is a process which eventually led to a change of culture in most African societies. However, it is important to note that in Sub Saharan Africa, there still exist groups of communities that still live in the forest and depend on hunting and gathering as sole source of food. A good example is the pygmies who live in the Congo forest (Bicchieri 89). Hunting and gathering is the oldest activity and the most distributed in time and space. Anthropologists and archeologists’ widely associate this technology starting point to ancient hominids about 2.5 million years ago. This is the period marked by the use of stone stones such as the oldwan, achuelean, and microlith tools. It is due to this reason hunting and gathering have been associated with the evolution process of humans. However, technological advancements were slow until 100, 000 years ago. During the ancient Stone Age, it is believed that hominids were restricted to Africa. This changed when Homo Erectus penetrated the temperate and warm Eurasia with their tools, which led to the growth of the acheulean industry. The Neanderthal man appeared around 100,000 years ago, and this period is associated with the development of advanced hunting and gathering tools (Winterhalder 408). Alcohol has undergone several evolutionary processes in the history of mankind. Civilization is credited for the advent of beer as result of competitive relationships and social stratification which in turn has contributed to universal alienation and technological advancements. Anthropologist credits Agrarian Revolution as the starting point of civilization and the period that humans begun subduing the environment leading to private land ownership and capitalism. They argue that hunters and gatherers in the ancient society absconded hunting with the aim of brewing beer eventually leading to sedimentary settlements (Hietler and Hayden 56). Some African societies that still practice hunting and gathering as a means of livelihood still lag behind in the development of modern recreational products such keg beer. It is for this reason that if an anthropologist dropped a bottle of keg in this society, the people out of curiosity would want to know what is in the bottle. In some extreme cases, the bottle could be picked by one member of the community and stored or even used as hunting tool (Lee and DeVore 34). Hunting and gathering has been a subsistence source of wild food among communities with limited dependence on domestic animals and plants. This happens to be true for 99.5 % of human race existence covering a period of up to 2.5 million years. However, there are various misconceptions that have been pegged on these technological advancements. These include hunters and gathers spending too much in the process of obtaining food and as a result they have limited time for civilization. In addition, hunters and gatherers are exposed to frequent starvation and as such they are malnourished. Similarly, modern hunters scavenge hunted meat which exposes them to risks of contracting disease (Speth and Johnson 28). Hunters and gathers choice of food is mainly environmental dependant and rely on the relative abundance of these foods. The most common food choices for hunters and gatherers include insects, animal species, birds, plants, and fish (Hawkes, O'Connell and Blurton 707). The food choice depends on its availability. For example, in the deserts there are no fish and consequently, hunters living in deserts have to depend on a different variety of food. Though there exists cultural variations on the choice of food and recreational food types among varying cultures, taste is the key determinant in a society’s food choice. Due to these considerations, observations have been made that food species rich in oil, starch, sugar or fats are in high demand among hunting and gathering societies (Katz and Voigt 33). There still exist societies in Africa that are actively involved in hunting and gathering activities. These societies remain technologically backward. As a result, the inhabitants of such areas when provided with new recreational options such as beer are not in a position to indentify the use and importance of these products. However, these could present a challenge to the society and could even become the wake up point for these people towards modernization and embracing other people’s culture. Appreciating these cultures could be as a result of using conventional recreational products such as beer. Works cited Bicchieri, Kathrine. Hunters and Gatherers Today. New York, NY: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001. Print. Hawkes, Kristen, O'Connell, James, and Nichoas Blurton. “Hunting and Nuclear Families: Some lessons from the Hadza about men's work.” Current Anthropology 42.5 (2001): 681–709. Print. Hietler, Michael, and Brian Hayden. Eds. Feasts: Archaeological and Ethnographic Perspectives on Food, Politics, and Power. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001 Katz, Solomon, and Mary Voigt. “Bread and Beer: The Early Use of Cereals in Human Diet.” Expedition 28.2 (2006): 23–34. Print. Lee, Richard, and Irven DeVore. eds. Man the Hunter. Chicago: Aldine, 2008. Print. Speth, John, and Kathrine Johnson. “Energy Source, Protein Metabolism, and Hunter-gatherer Subsistence Strategies.” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 2.1 (2007): 1–31. Print. Spielmann, Kelly. The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Life ways. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002. Print. Winterhalder, Bruce, and Eric Smith. Hunter-Gatherer Foraging Strategies. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2001. Print. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Keg of Beer during Hunting and Gathering. African Society Research Paper”, n.d.)
Keg of Beer during Hunting and Gathering. African Society Research Paper. Retrieved from
(Keg of Beer During Hunting and Gathering. African Society Research Paper)
Keg of Beer During Hunting and Gathering. African Society Research Paper.
“Keg of Beer During Hunting and Gathering. African Society Research Paper”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Keg of Beer during Hunting and Gathering. African Society

Society during the teenage years

...?Topic: Some aspect of society during the teenage years of a relative of your grandparents' generation Introduction: Older generation often argues that they have faced far more difficulties in their teenage as compared to the young generation today. Whereas, today’s generation believe that they have to go through various types’ complexities and difficulties in order to cope up with the current fast moving economy. Therefore, I decided to conduct my research on the topic “some aspect of society during the teenage years of a relative of your grandparent’s generation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the research would be to find out the advantages and shortcomings that exist...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Dynamism in Precolonial African Society

...Dynamism in Precolonial African Society of Dynamism in Precolonial African Society The dynamism of precolonial African society is something that needs a lot of attention from the academic society of today. In an increasingly globalizing world where people are losing their cultural identities to adopt a universal identity, an understanding of native societies are necessary so that neo-colonial forces do not eat into the cultural space that is available for the values and practices of native societies. Much research has been done into the postcolonial and colonial histories of...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

History- African Health and Society

...? History – African Health and Society Introduction During the colonial era in Africa, there were constant conflicts and compromises between the pre-existing African traditional, social, economic, and political development and the Western social, economic, and political ideologies. When Britain colonized Kenya there was the emergence of wage labor, the development of the European colonizer economy, and the growth of colonial trade started, which affected the traditional production patterns. The political and social developments in Kenya demanded the development of social facilities including hospitals and schools (Ndege 2002, 1).1 The introduction of Western biomedicine...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper


...that hunting an animal is not only unethical but may also interfere with the food chain. When the existence of a particular species is threatened the world faces a misbalance too. Though laws in all most all countries exist, which forbids killing of endangered species, yet a group of people ignore the severity of the problem and continue hunting. In Nagaland, a tribal place in India, villagers hunt the Great Hornbill just to pluck their feathers to make dresses or headgears. The hunting has become so severe that only a few hundred Great Hornbills exist today. Some people illegally hunt endangered species like one-horned rhinoceros or...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Gathering instruments

...? Data Gathering Instruments Data Gathering Instruments The action plan will use questionnaire as the main instrument in gathering data for the research. However, to determine the accuracy of the data, tallying students’ responses as well as assessment of student’s responses will be included in the research. The following triangulation matrix shows data sources that will be beneficial in analyzing data trends in reference to the research goals. Research question Data source #1 Data source #2 Data source #3 Data source# 4 What are the effects of increased wait time on the quantity of correct responses from elementary ELL students in a classroom? Test results Interview on Increased...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Women in Hunting and Gathering Period

...Topic: Women in Hunting and Gathering Period Economics of Race and Gender" In economic terms, to be gainfully employed is when a person is paid wages according to the prevailing market rates for the productive work done by him/her. The labor is a resource necessary to complete the conditions of demand, supply and market economics. The roles of men and women in economic and social terms would depend on the type of society and its stratification. While in a majority of developing countries, the men go out to earn a living and the women take care of household chores, in some African and Asian matriarchal communities, the women have a bigger say in the finances of the...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Narrative about family during a holiday gathering

...A Family Gathering My brother, Jack, has always been the most popular and beloved of all my siblings. He is a high achiever since his childhood. Be it a family picnic, a sport competition or the academic field, his achievement are awe-inspiring and unbeatable. I remember his high school farewell, when he felt extremely sad and our family organized a picnic to support him. It has been a while since I found him sad; he is always in a pleasant and joyful mood. My mother, Mary, was much worried when he quit his job for not being satisfied with the ethical conducts of the firm. Kate, our sister, took it too vague a reason of quitting a job when you are paid higher than your expectations. However, his abilities, experience and luck... are the...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment


2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper


...Question Morality of Permissibility of Hunting in each of the Three Cases Taking a consideration of moral ethics, this is a modern society where animals and human beings have certain rights guiding that guide their well-being. However, the moral permissibility of hunting high depends on the reasons why an individual would hunt animals i.e. hunting to control populations of animals in order to prevent it from overcoming the carrying capacity of the ecosystem may be allowed by this should be performed under stipulated rules and regulations. It is not appropriate that one would hunt animals for food and for fun; the current generation is...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Reserch Progect:Hilton Park Lane leadership style between middclass managment and employees

2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Keg of Beer during Hunting and Gathering. African Society for FREE!

Contact Us