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Income Inequality - Essay Example

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Full Name: Student Number: Date: Course: TA: Discriminated Access to Resources and women's poverty in Rural South Africa Introduction Poverty is defined as the “inability of individuals, households or entire communities to command sufficient resources to satisfy a socially acceptable minimum standard of living” (May 5)…
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Income Inequality
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Download file to see previous pages Majority of the poor, i.e. 70 percentage proportion of the total in South African region are women. Gender, race and social class based discriminations disable them from accessing the productive economic resources (Chant, 2008). As a result, poverty statistics show following distinguished characteristics; (1) majority of the poor category comprises of female labors, “female lead” households and children of “female lead” families (2) extreme poverty and persisting poverty incidents are high among the women, and (3) women find lifting out from the status of poverty, more difficult compared to the men (Kehler, 2001). Studies reveal that children raised in poor households prove to have a higher probability of repeating the cycles of poverty and disadvantage. The prominence of female-headed households among the poorer sections of society is increasing (Chant, 2008). The importance of integrating poverty alleviating and gender across equity in national development programs is thus well established. Current essay examines the poverty alleviating government policies which are aimed at 1) encouraging gender based “co-responsibilities” within family settings in South Africa. ...
Furthermore, the child and maternal mortality rates in South Africa had been increased since early 1990s. The life expectancy in 2008 had been 12 years lower than in 1996. Common fatal illnesses prevailing among the rural poor include AIDS and tuberculosis epidemics. Studies also reveal that there is a positive correlation between the status of poverty and occurrence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) in Low and Middle Income countries. Poor women in rural areas are highly vulnerable to these psychological health issues (Lund et. al., 2010). The key government interventions aimed at reducing poverty in South Africa can be listed as (a) increasing food and nutrition availability, (b) improving Social Services, (c) strengthening rural banking systems and (d) creating employment opportunities. Such government policies and the mainstream constitutional framework prevailing in South African region have been acknowledged as satisfactory by the World Bank. However women’s poverty is increasing. Various approaches are used to conceptual poverty. Example: social indicators such as income levels, consumption expenditures, and housing standards (water source, toilet facilities, construction materials and durables; ownership of radio, television, refrigerator, bicycle, motorcycle and/or car) subjective indicators such as attitudes, needs and perceptions and determinants of well-being such as access to health, availability of shelter, education facilities, welfare and human rights. However income and consumption expenditure are considered as inadequate measurements for measuring women’s poverty. In contemporary societies women’s social position is resembled by the legal, political, cultural and religious freedom they experience. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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