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This essay represents the discourse of critical psychology about the nature of child development as opposed to the path represented by the traditional approach. The essay views the cultural environment that led to changes in the views on child psychology…
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Traditional Psychology With an Increased Context Reference
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Download file to see previous pages Traditional psychology has focused on individual learning and growth. Critical psychology focuses on the context of ‘social justice, promoting the welfare of communities in general and oppressed groups in particular, and altering the status quo of society…’ (Fox & Prilleltensky, 2009, p. 4). Traditional psychology evolved with the use of a variety of approaches. The start with the Darwinian evolutionary approach gradually gave way to social, cognitive, emotional and physical considerations and amalgamations of the approaches. Initially, infantile behaviour was considered akin to that of primates. Darwin was the forerunner of thought in developmental psychology. He observed the capacity of the infant to convey a variety of emotions through changes in expression within the first two months of life. His evolutionary explanation led to the ‘emphasis on changes that occur as a function of time, both in the extremely long time scale of evolution and over the individual lifespan (Harris & Butterworth, 2002, p. 7).’ The traditional model emphasised the impact of genetic or environmental factors and an absence of ‘coupling between organism and environment’ that required mapping of the external world to the mind (Richardson, 2000, p.7). The behavioural view was followed by the assumption that the interaction of the organism with its environment determines behaviour. This theory assumes an evolution of mental systems to form learned actions. Learning occurred ontogenetically and evolutionally. Child development was to be mapped to a ‘correct or natural course’. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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