RUNNING HEAD: Gender Identity Topic: Gender Identity Name of the student: Under the guidance of: University: APA Format Gender Identity Introduction Gender identity may be described as a personal conception of oneself as female or male (Ghosh, 2012)…
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On the other hand, gender role is a manifestation within the society by various observable factors like appearance and behavior (Ghosh, 2012). What exactly determines gender identity is a much debated issue (Yuan-shan and Li-quin, 2006). While some researchers argue that gender identity is mainly because of prenatal exposure to male hormones, other opine that social factors like rearing have an impact on gender identity and behavior. The role of nature and nurture in gender identity and gender role is yet debated in biopsychological circles and enormous research has been conducted in this regard. In this essay, the influence of hormones on gender identity and behavior will be discussed. Role of biological factors like hormones on sexual differences, behavior and gender identity Maturation of gender identity or gender development in a child begins in the intrauterine stage. Primary role is played by sexual dimorphism induced by hormones in the growing fetus. It is a fact that all human fetuses are actually primed to have a female sex and the default pathway is to have a female anatomy. However, during the 8th week of gestation, fetuses that have Y chromosome and have a functional locus for testes determining factor known as SRY gene, undergo testicular development. During this process, a steady surge of testosterone produced by the testes occurs and conversion of the inherently female fetus into a male fetus happens. The main virilizing hormone during gestation is dihydrotestesterone that occurs from testosterone (Yuan-shan and Li-quin, 2006). Certain other gene products also may be involved in the masculinization of the inherently female fetus. Another important factor that eventually leads to male phenotype is the production of antimullerian hormone that inhibits formation of mullerian ducts leading to development of female genitals (Ghosh, 2012). In this process, even the fetal brain is affected. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal and human models have revealed that certain parts of brain, like the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum and preoptic hypothalamus are larger following exposure to intrauterine testesterone. On the other hand, in the female fetuses which are anyway deprived of testesterone, the corresponding parts are smaller. The follicular stimulating hormone which triggers the development of female genital tract and ovaries is present in both males and females, but its effect is superseded in males by the testesterone surge. Role of nurture on gender identity and gender behavior The environment in which the child is reared following birth has an influence on gender identity even much before the child is born. Parents and relatives create an environment in the house and buy clothes and toys appropriate for sex of the to-be-born baby after antenatal detection of sex has occurred. Even the names are different for boys and girls. Following birth, after appropriate assignment of sex has been made, environment plays a significant role in gender identity development. The parents rear the child as boy or girl and inculcate appropriate gender specific interactions. Some researchers have argued that gender identity is actually malleable in the first year of life, following which it is irreversible (Ghosh, 2012). This aspect has however been challenged. Researchers have argued that gender identity is typically an inborn characteristic and that it reaches a critical point during childhood. Mammalian
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In the present generation, the identity of a person not only depends upon the class or race from which he belongs, but also on his level of income which is guided by the factor of employment (Stetes & Burke,2000,pp.224-237). The paper analyzes various theories and also incorporates the personally held values and beliefs.
One’s identity is frequently theorized either as an individual (personal identity) or as a group (social identity) (Cote & Levine, 2002, p. 23). Personal identity can be described as the organization of one’s perceptions and individual evaluations that are important to them, with regard to individual concepts, image, or self-esteem.Social identity is described as the way an individual is viewed by others (Woodward, 2004, p.
When asked who they are person may say that “I am a doctor” or an engineer and so on. Identity is a distinctive feature of a person or a group of people that set him or them apart from others. Personal identity entails individuality, self esteem and self image.
Other suggested meanings of identity is that it is a transitive property, wherein if A is the same person as B, and B is the same person as C, then A is the same person as C (Martin and Barresi, 2003). Still another definition of identity is how we see ourselves, our roles, how we relate to others and how we converse, as well as how we live our working lives (Ibarra, 2003).
This paper is primarily based on discussing if paid employment affects the workers’ identities or not, in what ways, and also the factors influencing those identities within the organizational setup. The way a worker perceives his or her identity in response to the type of employment he or she is engaged with influences the organizational behavior displayed by him or her.
Experts have all weighed in and published many books and articles to warn the populace just how damaging such a life actually is and how it could change the person’s identity. On US television, there are at least five syndicated health shows on every day and there are even entire networks dedicated to the subject.
Gender refers to the social and psychological characteristics associated with an individual being male or female.Gender identity is a perception of self as a masculine or feminine. Socially recognized indicators include hairstyle, body shape, and other mannerisms. This paper will aim to discuss the following questions: What are the general gender roles accepted in the society?
This is one of the issues that this research discusses among others. Although unions aren't as notable in the nursing field as in other industrial areas, many nurses feel that they are a good idea to have in order to effectively change the working environment of nursing professionals.
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?s language develops as a result of the presence of older children around who interact with them, the presence of sensitive adults who listen to them, and numerous influences that children use to model language skills. By one theory of language acquisition, humans are thought
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