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This multipurpose term is used for the set of programs developed by government in order to eliminate the discrimination based on race and gender. The affirmative action programs provide opportunities in education and employment. This facilitates the opportunities that can help beneficiary group to improve its skill, opportunities and uplift the social status. There are various studies that have covered the controversies around the affirmative action within the American society and politics. This has been viewed a politically motivated activity to increase or maintain the vote banks. The controversy is also linked with the tangibility factors of the affirmative action. This is termed as ‘reverse discrimination or preferential treatment’ by Mangum. Berry (2004) has studied the expansion of the affirmative action programs to the private sector by providing educational, training and employment opportunity to the protected groups with increase their recruitment in the organization. There have been various studies and debates over the controversies around affirmative action.
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Affirmative Action The principle of affirmative action Affirmative action (hereforth referred to as “AA”) is defined as “a set of practices undertaken by employers, university admission offices, and government agencies to go beyond nondiscrimination, with the goal of actively improving the economic status of minorities and women with regard to employment, education and business ownership and growth” (Holzer & Neumark, 469).
Affirmative action is a policy in the United States which emphasizes upon the need for provision of equal opportunities of employment which the law requires the federal subcontractors and contractors to adopt. The affirmative action is implemented with an intention to eradicate discrimination on the basis of such factors as origin, race, ethnicity, sex and color against the candidates applying for a position.
According to the research conducted by Sharma (2005) and Acton (2000), affirmative action can simply be referred to as the advocating of equality in society. Affirmative action can also looked at as positive movements aimed at increasing the representing number of women and minorities in areas of education, business and employment which they have been excluded for a long time (Sowell, 2004; Garrett, 2004).
Affirmative Action. Affirmative action is still needed in 2012. There are discrepancies between the white males versus women and nonwhite males in terms of equal rights to education and higher paying jobs. The research delves into the hiring of minorities and accepting minorities in school programs.
increase the representation of women and minorities in areas of employment, education, and business from which they have been historically excluded” (Fullinwinder, 2005). In part, the reason for this is multi-faceted. First, it informs caucasians that racism still exists,
in which people are marginalized bringing together the people for equal opportunities, where it started with attempting to eliminate discrimination and integrating people into a society that saw them as outcasts and denied them opportunities that were availed to them