We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Nobody downloaded yet

Affirmative Action Policies - Essay Example

Comments (0)
The issue of interracial relations has always been probably the most controversial and difficult social problems of American society. For much of the last century, racial, gender, ethnic, and religious minorities have been facing legal exclusion and unequal treatment…
Download full paper

Extract of sample
Affirmative Action Policies

Download file to see previous pages... Only in the late decades of the last century the federal government and the Supreme Court, Republicans and Democrats, and various human rights organizations implemented systematic approach to resolve the problem of discrimination in employment and education, but the results were usually inconsiderable. Racial conflicts and discrimination persisted as well as attempts to eliminate them. In the second half of the 20th century the latter were labeled as 'affirmative action' policies.

The origins of these policies dates back to 1961, when President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order number 10925 proclaiming the 'affirmative action' policy the central axis of the US employment and educational policies. The Civil Rights Act became the next step toward elimination of discrimination in the United States. After its approval in 1964, the necessity emerged to change a number of traditional policies and official procedures, such as seniority status and aptitude tests, which included discriminatory provisions. In 1965 President Lyndon Johnson signed his Executive Order number 11246 stating that all government contractors and subcontractors were obliged "to take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin". The order was immediately followed by a series of lawsuits that supported the policy of affirmative action. Thus, the Supreme Court ruling in Griggs vs. Duke Power Company case invalidated intelligence tests and several other discriminating criteria in employment. The newly created governmental institutions, the Office of Federal Contract, had to implement the order (Encyclopedia Americana, 1985: 241).
The contemporary meaning of the term 'affirmative action' has not changed over years. The initial purpose of affirmative action also remained unchanged: elimination of racial, sexual, ethnic, disability, or any other discrimination. In 1996, President William Clinton defined affirmative action as "an effort to develop a systematic approach to open the doors of educational, employment, and business development opportunities to qualified individuals who happen to be members of groups that have experienced long-standing and persistent discrimination" (Clinton, 1996: 131).
In the recent years the affirmative programs has become one of the most widely discussed domestic issues in the United States. A number of analysts tend to consider the affirmative action policy a very effective tool that significantly reduced discrimination against non-white and female population of the United States. However, there is also an opinion that the affirmative efforts have been nothing but a great illusion from the very beginning: the positive results were made up to justify huge sums of money spent on implementation of affirmative programs. Although both standpoints have seemingly strong arguments, it will be closer to the truth to state that affirmative action policies largely failed.

Main Discussion
First of all, there are credible data that demonstrates the increase in well-being of some representatives of racial minorities was achieved not at the expense of the white majority, but at the expense of other representatives of the same minority: "The civil rights movement, anti-discrimination ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Pros and Cons of Affirmative Action
The theme behind affirmative action, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2009, para.1), is to take positive steps “to increase the representation of women and minorities in areas of employment, education, and business from which they have been historically excluded.” Affirmative action has seen great controversy under situations where preferential selection has to be made, that is, where selection has to be made on the basis of race and gender.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Affirmative Action Policies
This paper intends to research the history of affirmative action policies for both graduate and undergraduate programs in the United States, as well as develop an argumentative paper drawing a conclusion about the constitutionality of these policies. Factiously, America is a country with many people of different ethnic, racial, and other diverse backgrounds1.
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Affirmative action and Diversity policies

The author states that it is based on the concept that by increasing the opportunities for the minority populations, the existence gaps can be addressed. In its responses, the paper suggests that affirmative action is indeed necessary in addressing the current problems that are attributed to social categorizations.

5 Pages(1250 words)Assignment
Affirmative action policies and law
It also applies to the awarding of other social benefits for these groups. The problem is that some people consider it to be reverse discrimination (Bardach, 2005; Holzer and Neumark, 2000 and Holzer and Neumark, 2006).The Civil Rights Act of 1964 started the whole push towards affirmative action.
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Affirmative Action
Now many successful organizations are realizing the worth of affirmative action policies and the positive effect that they have on the
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Political Science : Affirmative Action
These policies also aim to encourage public institutions to represent minorities. Affirmative action is promoted using recruitment programs for applicants from disadvantaged groups. In certain cases favored treatment is given to minorities which is known as reverse
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Law - Affirmative Action Policies
hieving full and fair participation of all members of the society, who were initially not fully utilized in the work place, and negatively impacted by the policies (Schmidt, 2008). According to Schmidt (2008), equal opportunities in employment give a guide on employment of
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Affirmative Action
The employment should be based on gender equality, which is evident in hiring and promotion notion as well as elimination of racial discrimination. Concerning
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
What does Katznelson mean by white affirmative action How do U.S. government policies effect non-white Americans
In essence, the southern states embarked on an objective, which resulted in formulating racial segregation laws (Katznelson 4). Some New Deal and Fair Deal policies, which were initiated by the U.S. government to help the unemployed and the poor, turned
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay
Report Discussion
In an inhibitory experiment, when the association between the CS from the first phase and the US has been deduced, the US is no longer disturbing because it can be predicted by CS1. In phase 2 however, the US is not surprising as CS1 and CS2 are
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment
Let us find you another Essay on topic Affirmative Action Policies for FREE!
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us