America has always had a highly diverse culture which, coupled with the idealistic vision of an equal society, oftentimes results in a question of how to properly treat the various differences that exist within our society. …
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While that affirmative action question was resolved through violence and a historical war that changed the social landscape of America, time has shown us that there have been other questions pertaining to social equality over time that have been resolved much more peacefully through the use of affirmative action. That is why I chose to write about affirmative action for this class. I will be presenting a definitive look at the history and time line of affirmative action in our country while also looking into the solutions that our society and political leaders have come up with in order to resolve most of the affirmative action issues of our time. All of the information that I shall present will come from various reputable internet based articles, journals, and websites. The 1960's saw an American society that was perceived to have had a great imbalance when it came to offering equal employment opportunities for minority groups and women in education. A year later, in 1961, President John f. Kennedy initiated moves to help resolve the question of inequality by establishing the President's Committee on Equal Opportunity in order to ensure that all applicants for government positions would be hired based upon their qualifications rather than their race, creed, national origin, or gender. This committee would become the predecessor to the modern Equal Opportunity Commission. (NCSL “Affirmative Action Overview”). It was during the same decade that the American people became far more conscious of the need for the Kennedy termed “affirmative action” plan. Prior to Pres. Kennedy's executive order, there was absolutely no way that a member of the minority groups or a woman would have been able to gain employment in positions that were formerly assigned only to men. That is why the executive order for the president was met with much jubilation during his time. With a stroke of his pen, the president was able to level the employment field for all Americans counteracting “historic discrimination faced by ethnic minorities, women and other underrepresented groups.” (Nittle, Nadra Kareem “What is Affirmative Action?”) With the groundwork now set by President Kennedy, affirmative action policies were not freely issued by his successors, with President Lyndon B. Johnson issuing his own affirmative action orders that allowed for blacks and other minority groups, including women to be allowed the same opportunities for promotions, salary increases, career advancement, school admissions, scholarships, and financial aid that used to be reserved only for the Whites. (Brunner, Borgina & Rowen, Beth “Affirmative Action History”). Basically, this was a government policy that was not meant to last too long. It was a band aid solution to what was perceived to be a temporary problem by the government. For some reason, the movement just continued to gain momentum from the time of Kennedy up to the present. While affirmative action has been able to create a long term. rather than short term solution to the problem of equal employment, there are still other situations that are crying out for more solutions based upon affirmative action. The problem of equality in education has remained one of the major problems for the melting pot of races in this land of dreams and opportunity. Most of our college and university students still find themselves having to deal with new forms of discrimination every single day of their lives. Colleges and universities still face the problem of having to deal with racial preferences when accepting registrants into their various college
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Representatives of minorities and women were segregated into low paid and less perspective jobs, while some minorities - for example Chinese or Korean, were legally forbidden to own land. Until the second decade of the last century, even white women were legally deprived of the political rights and in many states they could not enter certain occupational fields, such as law, journalism, and medicine.
Since its inception, affirmative action has succeeded in balancing the scale of opportunities available to men and women of all ethnicities. A quota system generally reflects the area’s ethnic demographics thereby allowing for real equality opportunity that is not discriminatory towards any particular race.
The objective of this essay is to obtain a critical view to the issue of affirmative action giving an account to both pros and cons associated with the application of such policies. Furthermore, it also intends to present the current view or perception perceived by people in general regarding the issue explaining reasons to accept such ideologies.
This paper intends to research the history of affirmative action policies for both graduate and undergraduate programs in the United States, as well as develop an argumentative paper drawing a conclusion about the constitutionality of these policies. Factiously, America is a country with many people of different ethnic, racial, and other diverse backgrounds1.
Since that time it has been argued over and amended and frequently a topic of some debate. This paper will provide background information on affirmative action; history of and introduction of, why this was needed and immediate effects of this. Those impacted originally and also today will be discussed with research provided in the area of related ideas and theories to affirmative action.
Affirmative Action The principle of affirmative action Affirmative action (hereforth referred to as “AA”) is defined as “a set of practices undertaken by employers, university admission offices, and government agencies to go beyond nondiscrimination, with the goal of actively improving the economic status of minorities and women with regard to employment, education and business ownership and growth” (Holzer & Neumark, 469).
Affirmative action is a policy in the United States which emphasizes upon the need for provision of equal opportunities of employment which the law requires the federal subcontractors and contractors to adopt. The affirmative action is implemented with an intention to eradicate discrimination on the basis of such factors as origin, race, ethnicity, sex and color against the candidates applying for a position.
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