The Berlin Code of 1900 was created as a result of questionable and unethical experiments on humans that were done by Albert Neisser, a German microbiologist. This was during a time when scientific information really began to grow and doctors and scientists alike were…
Download file to see previous pages...
ologist, that brought to light the issues surrounding ethics, and with the help of American doctors William Osler and William Welch, wrote the Berlin Code of 1900. The Berlin Code gave a list of ethical conditions that needed to be met before humans could be used in medical experimentation.
Adolf Hitler, not to our surprise, decided that the Berlin Code had exceptions, people that were not considered to meet the standards that were set down by the Code. He felt that Jews, gypsies, homosexuals, and mentally disabled people did not count as citizens and, as such, did not have the same rights as others. It was because of this that Hitler allowed cruel and unethical experiments to take place in the concentration camps of World War II. These were not as much medical experiments as they were series of various tortures. In 1947, the Nuremberg Tribunal condemned Nazi doctors for their acts of torture and murder as opposed to medical experimentation. Due to what took place at the hands of Hitler and his Nazi doctors, the Nuremberg Code was created (Marrus, 1999).
The Nuremberg Code hardly differs from the original Berlin Code, except that it made it clear that the guidelines extended to all human beings. Ten guidelines were outlined to ensure the utmost protection for humans during medical experimentation, including under certain conditions that it is not safe to use humans for experimentation, which would be situations that could cause injury, disability, or death. More guidelines were also added in the Nuremberg Code, as opposed to what was in the Berlin Code, to ensure that risks would be tended to before taking on a human subject in experiments; if risks would arise during the experimentation, the study would have to be terminated.
The greatest change in the alteration of Codes as a result of Hitler’s actions is the consent that must now be given by the human subject (Vollmann & Winau, 1996). If they do not wish to participate in the experiment, they do not have
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
(“Case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 13”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1571407-case-study
(Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 13)
“Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words - 13”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1571407-case-study.
The fall of the hammer in a traditional auction is complete when the auctioneer announces its completion by the fall of the hammer or in other customary manner-and until any such announcement is made any bidder may retract his or her bid. The equivalent of the fall of the hammer in an eBay auction is the automatic close of bidding at a fixed time and the generation of an eBay advice headed "won" appear to have been accepted by the parties to an eBay auction.
Today, the meaning of propaganda is used comprehensively to connote public relations. The government uses mass relations to disseminate accurate information on policies and their adversaries. The two frequent features that presented propaganda’s new possibilities were mass
The amount of organizational takeovers and company mergers has been considered a standard of measure of the level of economic development. In most cases, company takeovers have been associated with incidents
sively become more complicated, labor shortages will become evident in most of the mature industries and companies especially in the developed countries. At the same time, a more than needed number of employees with skilled talent are likely to be seen in other areas and
A company should embrace technology in handling production process.
Bella India has skilled personnel as evidenced in the way management tackles technical issues such as reduction in transitional time between St Louis and
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Case study for FREE!