(2009) Physical activity reduces the influence of genetic effects on BMI and waist circumference: a study in young adult twins. International Journal of Obesity. 33:29-36
It is believed that excessive energy intake and physical…
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Also included are operational variables of BMI and waist circumference as well as physical activity and use of high energy foods (Pietilainany, Kapro, Rasomen, 2001).
The variables that were operationalized were BMI, waist circumference, high energy food intake. They set an average BMI over the years of study per age group as well as waist circumference. The last studies of these groups of children were done when they reached the ages of 22-27 years old. Waist circumferences and high energy food intake were also defined along this continuum of study.
One of the validity tests that they had to use here was the statistical conclusion validity and the reason for that is because there are many different variables being used. The most important variable to look at here is the use of twin to measure genetic effects on activity and obesity. All of the genetic backgrounds were traced and these twins did meet all of the criteria for a valid study showing that the statistical results were appropriate given the causal nature of the genetic part of the study (Burns & Grove, 2007).
Internal validity is about whether this is real world testing and in this case it certainly is as there are definitely real world issues for twins like any other child as far as developing or not developing obesity. Extraneous validity is important also and these children were allowed to live their normal lives with each of the parameters that might affect them tracked and then checked again over the years. In other words it was not set up that one twin would be sedentary while the other was active leading to one that was obese and one that was not. They lived their usual lives and if one was obese, it was determined by the real lifestyle that child led.
Mustelin L, Silventoinen K, Pietalainen K. (2009) Physical activity reduces the influence of genetic effects on BMI
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Such designs normally focus on a various aspects which results in the various levels of job satisfaction and motivation to a given set of employees (Cranny, Smith & Stone, 126). For example, designs which emphasize on production efficiency at minimal strain while ensuring employee motivation will in effect, offer job satisfaction.
As the use of self-managing work teams increases, it will be incumbent on managers to find ways to enhance employees' identification with their work, their teams, and the company. Furthermore, as the educational levels of employees increase (and they are increasing), the demand for greater challenge, variety, and responsibility in a job also will increase (Fineman, Sims and Yann, 1996).
However, aside from these philosophical principles, there indeed exists a practical aspect of scientific methodology, where truth is derived through close observation of the rational experiments based on the hypothesis.
f this study is to determine if it is possible to provide financial incentives to encourage follow up and counseling for patients in the ED that test positive. Inclusion criteria was the CDC guidelines for patients at risk for HIV infection. These guidelines were applied in the
aving heard say a sudden impact or lingering sound only to find that their minds are actually buried in deep illusive thoughts that imaginations appear to manifest for real. Some of my friends and relatives have expressed being certain of events or objects seen until sights
In the last column, the product of frequency and the square of mid-point of salary is computed for each salary range. The sum of all these products is computed (as 542825) and divided by size of the distribution (20) to
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