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, it is important to note that they have brought forward similar theories and findings as Aristotle’s well-known statement, “Humans are political animals.” Throughout their texts, the three philosophers conceptualize the idea that human beings are by nature the most valuable creation of God, endowed with excellence and superiority, and equipped with human intellect that allows rationalization and political justice.
According to Al-Farabi’s text On the Perfect State, humans have the most valuable existence, ranking in the world below and above the moon. As highly operational animals, humans have been placed at the apex of the ascending order of excellence -- above plants and animals. In signifying that humans have the greatest ability to excel and become closer to the First Himself, Al-Farabi states, “There is nothing after the animals which are endowed with speech and thought that surpasses it in excellence.”1 The purpose of human existence is to masterfully navigate the environment that surrounds them, miming and becoming closer to the heavenly bodies that exist above. The Islamic philosophers understood that through speech and thought, humans are able to create their own means of communication. This communication includes spoken and body language and -- for some other “perfect humans” or prophets -- the exceptional tongue that speaks the words of God.
Being God’s only creation that is equipped with speech and thought both provides humans significance in the world and prepares them to implement their thoughts into actions. Humans take upon the visceral response of an animal and the nutritive quality of a plant and combine these elements to heighten their distinction and become self-sufficient. Their ability to communicate with each other, expressing themselves through conversation, conscious behavior and moral action, leads them to civility and knowledge. For instance, humans are able to correspond and react to nature and are given the
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To discuss the views of Hobbes and compares it with the views of other philosophers, it is important to understand the different influences on Hobbes which shaped his overall work. Hobbes’s most of the work is either a reaction to the religious doctrines and authority of that time or it was more oriented towards the emerging new mean of understanding truth through scientific method.
In my opinion, Shakespeare’s view of human nature and political reality is in line with Kant’s. Regardless of the different natures of knowledge, history play versus philosophy, the two distinct accounts have shared the same view on human nature and political reality, which is human beings have selfish instincts and have tendencies to abuse their freedom and their power.
Taking into account that there are a lot of literary works and researches written on the topic of eternal life, every study, and especially each philosophic or religious doctrine, has its own unique explanation. In the life of every normal person, there is such a moment when a question about the end of individual existence on the planet arises.
Ewen (2003) explains personality as something that refers to "important and relatively stable aspects of behavior" (p.3). Other psychoanalysts and theorists have explained personality and its development in different ways, each differing from the other in one or more aspects.
The divide between the two sects of Islam occurred at the death of the prophet Muhammad in 632 AD; since the spiritual leader had made no arrangements for his own succession, his followers were unsure what to do in his absence. The solution was twofold: while the majority of Muslims wanted to elect their leaders, a small minority decided that the best replacement for Muhammad would be from his own family.
These commercialized human needs are continuously upgrading manipulatively to favor their merchandise. This eventually drives them to do what is being suggested by the ruling commerce rampant in the lifestyle of many Americans.
As majority of the population goes along the trend, it became loosely a lifestyle most common to many Americans.
Migration of human beings support globalization since when people move to another place, they tend to carry with them their culture to the new location which is in imitated by the others. With this kind of interaction, some behaviors are seen to have integrated together which with time harmonizes them.
According to them, political power originated from a pre political natural condition through a gradual development of Social Contract. This pre political natural condition is termed as ‘state of nature’. Although the
It is a reality beyond suspicion that philosophers are the rebels of the society to which belong, and revolt against the prevailing inequalities, injustices and malpractices being committed within their social and political establishment. Their thoughtfulness shows new dimensions and a ray of hope to their fellow beings.