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The Human Beings and the Evolutionary Process - Essay Example

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This essay analyzes the discipline of anthropology, that studies the human beings with special reference to the evolutionary process they have experienced. In other words, the subject discusses the cultural and biological alterations attributed to the humans and their past civilizations at large…
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The Human Beings and the Evolutionary Process
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The Human Beings and the Evolutionary Process

Download file to see previous pages... The names and contributions made by Lamarck and Darwin appear to be at the top of the list of the anthropologists-theorists rendering the most noteworthy services in the discipline of evolution and biological-cultural anthropology. Renowned nineteenth-century English biologist-naturalist Sir Charles Darwin (1809-82) presented his distinguished Theory of Evolution in his illustrious work On the Origin of Species (1859), where he articulated the unique idea that humans could have shared the same ancestry associated with the other species existing on the face of the earth. By this Darwin perhaps does not mean to challenge the Biblical mythology or ridiculing the religious beliefs in order to hurt the sentiments of the followers of Abrahamic faiths (i.e. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). On the contrary, he just looks for elucidating the relationship between man’s physical and mental growth through adaptation according to the changes taking place within the natural, physical and social environment. In other words, Darwinian anthropology asserted a meaningful relationship between the workings of nature and the conscious actions of animal breeders (Marks 1999). Though aptly criticized by Darwin’s contemporary theologians and dogmatists, he was not the pioneer in respect of articulating the evolution theory. On the other hand, his predecessor Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) had already presented the similar notion that various species, including the human beings, observe significant transformations in their biological and social traits according to the physical and cultural phenomena existing around them. Not only this that the species adopt these changes according to the circumstances, but also they maintain the ability to transfer the same characteristics to their young ones through a hereditary process (Bowler 2003). Somehow, Darwin dedicated himself in respect of unearthing the realities regarding the changes species experience during the course of time. These changes, according to the theorist, occur because of the biological needs and requirements of the species. Darwin claims to have followed the induction canon, according to Ayala (2009), prevalent among his contemporary British philosophers and economists, including J.S. Mill, Francis Bacon, and others. Hence, he concentrated upon multiple similar species and applied his hypothesis upon different species too in order to draw out conclusions paving the way towards his marvelous theory of evolution seeking one and the same ancestry for the species sharing similar physical traits. Darwin accumulated scientific evidence in support of his evolution theory by concentrating upon two points; first, whether or not evolution has taken place in the biological and social life of the individuals; and secondly whether the evolution has undergone various stages for adopting the present shape and form developed by the species. Consequently, the in-depth investigation made by this great science giant i.e. Darwin was not confined to mere speculation or the limited study confined to some specific species only. Rather, the study focused upon insects and mammals, vertebrates and invertebrates, fowls and fish, and animals and fish at large. Though the dogmatists opposed Darwinian perspective to a great extent. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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