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Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells - Essay Example

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The structure of human body parts is like a complicated machinery, made up of substances, which is divided into small particles, molecules, cells etc. In fact, all living beings are made up of small cells, which are further divided into sub-cells or molecules…
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Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells
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Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells (Compare and Contrast) The structure of human body parts is like a complicated machinery, made up of substances, which is divided into small particles, molecules, cells etc. In fact, all living beings are made up of small cells, which are further divided into sub-cells or molecules. Light Microscope or Electron Microscopes are used to view these tiny cells. These cells are of many different types, which make the appearance and characteristics distinct from each other. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells are two such cells which have DNA as their generic material. DNA as we know tells us about our family structure and passes on from one generation to another. The large number of cells and their network helps in differentiating the DNA structure. The DNA keeps of replicating with the help of template polymerization. The Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells are made up of similar basic chemicals like carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acid, minerals, fats and vitamins, while making use of proteins as catalysts. The hereditary information is transformed into RNA, which in turn is translated into proteins. Therefore these two cells are similar in nature in many respects.
But, there are a number of features which differentiate these two types cells from each other. One of the major distinctive feature is that the Prokaryote is without a nucleus, therefore the DNA keeps floating around in an unorganized manner in the cells. But on the other hand, the Eukaryote cells have a large centrally located nucleus, surrounded by double layer of membrane known as nuclear envelope. This envelope contains nucleoplasm. The DNA is held within this nucleus only. The nucleus being the centre of activities is also termed as brain of the cell. Prokaryotic cells do not have the organelles, but Eukaryotic cells have organelles which allow them to perform more complex functions.
Both these cells differ in respect of their size as well. While the size of cell in Prokaryotic cells is quite small, generally within the range of less than 5 m, but the size of Eukaryotic cells is quite large in comparison. In general it is larger than 10 m, but there are cells which have been found to be ten times as large as Prokaryotic cells. In addition, Prokaryotic cells happen to be unicellular in nature, while Eukaryotic cells are often multi-cellular.
The formation of cell walls also distinguishes them from each other. The cell walls in case of Prokaryotic are invariably made up of peptidoglycan (amino acid and sugar). But the material happens to be polysaccharides for the cell walls of some of the eukaryotic cells. In addition the DNA of Prokaryotic is circular in shape, while in case of Eukaryotic it is linear. The cell division too is another factor which makes them different from each other. While the cell division in Prokaryotic is done by binary diffusion, in case of Eukaryotic it is done by way of mitosis or meiosis. The age factor of these two cells also makes an interesting difference. After studying the origin of these two cells, scientists came to the inference that Prokaryotic cells were the primitive ones, as these cells were the first life forms on earth originated about 3.5 billion years ago, available in the form of bacteria. Eukaryotic cells on the other hand are stated to have originated 2 billion years after Prokaryotic.
In fact scientists are on the lookout to explore more out of the vast information database in the depth of these cells. Advancement in instrumentation, science and technology is certainly helping in deciphering the characteristics more accurately. For example, till recently it was believed that only eukaryotic cells exist in multi-cell groups as is the case in organs and tissues, but recent researches have pointed out that some prokaryotic cells also possess this quality. Read More
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