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On Typical Cell - Essay Example

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Name Institution Course Instructor Date Typical Cell The cell is the fundamental unit of life. There exist millions of different types of cells. Some cells are organisms onto themselves, like bacteria and amoeba cells. Others only function when they are part of a large organism, like the human cells…
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Download file to see previous pages Additionally, each cell keeps its own instructions that enable it to carry out these tasks. The debate over typical cell has been present for several decades. Microbiology scientists in different factions have defined the basic cells with its components, while others argue that the definition of a typical cell is not definite. This paper discusses the basic structure and functioning of the cell to understand whether there is anything like a typical cell. The cell is the fundamental building block for all living organisms. Living cells are divided into two main categories: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Scientists believe that life on earth began some 4 billion years ago. Prokaryotic cells were the first cells to evolve in the world. These organisms did not have a nuclear membrane, the membrane surrounding the nucleus of a cell. Bacteria cells are an example of prokaryotic organisms. However, the recent discovery of archaea (a second prokaryotic) proves that there was a third life of cellular domain (Panno, 2005:41). Prokaryotes are single cell organisms that do not differentiate or develop to form multi-cellular organisms. Although some bacteria reside as masses of cells or grow in filaments, each single cell is similar to the other and has the capacity to exist independently. The reason behind the existence of the cells is the probability of not separating after cell division, or maybe they remained in a common slime or sheath (Cooper and Hausman, 2009:246). Despite their close arrangement to each other, they do not communicate or interact for continuity. Prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes based on nuclear structure and organization. Prokaryotes have the capability to inhabit everywhere on the planet, including our body surface. Prokaryotes lack the nuclear membrane. They also have no intracellular structure and organelles characteristic of eukaryotes. The functions of the organelles like mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and chloroplasts are delegated to the prokaryotic plasma membrane. A prokaryote has three main architectural regions: a cytoplasmic part that has the ribosome and cell genomes (deoxyribonucleic acid DNA), a cell envelope that has a plasma membrane, a cell wall, and a capsule, and appendages refered to as pili and flagella (Panno, 2005:67). On the other hand, eukaryotes have a more defined nuclear structure. Examples of eukaryotes include animals, plants, and unicellular organisms. Eukaryotes are approximately ten times larger than prokaryotes, and having up to 1000 times much volume. The major difference between the two is that eukaryotes have compartments within the membrane where particular metabolisms occur (Cooper and Hausman, 2009:290). A significant difference is the nucleus, which is a compartment delineated by the nuclear membrane. The nucleus houses the DNA of the eukaryotic cell, thus the name of the eukaryotes (true nucleus). The eukaryotes also have organelles, special small structures that perform specific functions within a cell. Eukaryotic cells have dozens of different types of these organelles. Eukaryotes were a major development on the life of living things as well as a key evolution concept. Eukaryotes use the same metabolic processes and genetic codes like prokaryotes, but their advanced organizational complexity allows development of multi-cellular organism (Cooper and Hausm ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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