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The Cell - Essay Example

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This metabolic pathway converts glucose into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− and Hydrogen ions. The free energy is used to form Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and NADH. The primary macronutrient of glycolysis is…
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The Cell
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The Cell Glycolysis is a process, which is responsible for energy production. This metabolic pathway converts glucose into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− and Hydrogen ions. The free energy is used to form Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and NADH. The primary macronutrient of glycolysis is (carbohydrate) glucose. However, other sugars also metabolized in this pathway including fructose, which enters in the glycolysis pathway in the form of fructose-6-phosphate.
Glycogenesis is the process in which glucose is converted into glycogen. The formation of glycogen depends upon the amount of glucose and ATP. If both of these compounds are found in high amount than the process of the conversion of glucose into glycogen is mediated by insulin, which is stored in liver and muscles (Hardy 50). Glucose and Glycogen are the two major macronutrients found in the process.
2) Glycogenesis is an anabolic reaction because the series of reactions result is the formation of glycogen whereas, glycolysis is catabolic in nature because it breaks down large glucose molecule into smaller components and releases energy.
3) Cellular compartmentalization is very important so that the products of each process remain unaffected from the surrounding cellular activities. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm (cytosol) of cells. Cytoplasm is a not a membrane-bound organelle. All the major constituents of cells are found suspended in it. Glycolysis requires enzymes, which are abundant, find in the cytoplasm. These enzymes are not found in other organelles like mitochondria. The process of glycogenesis occurs in the cytoplasm of liver and muscle cells. When the blood sugar level is low, this stored glycogen is converted into glucose to replenish the energy requirement of the body as in the case of fight and flight.
Both processes need oxygen, which is present in the cytosol. In glycolysis, high amount of energy is released; whereas, in glycogenesis energy is required for the phosphorylation of glucose (Harvey 312). If cellular compartmentalization would not be present, the chemicals produce in each reaction (glycogen and glucose) would mix up with the products of other chemical processes occurring in other organelles like Krebs cycle in mitochondria. The product of glycolysis enters in the Krebs cycle, which takes place in mitochondria. These are stepwise processes, which are controlled due to cellular compartmentalization.
Works Cited
Hardy, Jim. Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis and Gluconeogenesis. 2003. Web. 3 September 2014 .
Harvey, Richard. Biochemistry (Lippincotts Illustrated Reviews Series). London: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 2010. Print. Read More
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