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Diabetes mellitus - Term Paper Example

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Diabetes mellitus Name University Diabetes Mellitus Introduction Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder associated with hyperglycemia or increased glucose levels in the blood. There are various types of diabetes depending on different etiologies that contributes in the underlying pathogenesis of the disease…
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Download file to see previous pages Increase in blood glucose level can have variable effects on the body depending upon the quantitative rise of glucose. Diabetes can cause multi-organ dysfunction with severe impairment in quality of life. Therefore, it contribute as a major disease that burden not only the individual that is affected but also to the health care system (Winter & Maria, 2002). Which ethnic group is more prone the development of pre diabetes and diagnosed diabetes? Which ethnic groups naturally have high insulin levels which increases the susceptibility of the individuals to the development of diabetes? Methodology I have consulted a number of textbooks for the compilation of this research paper. In order to ensure that only authentic and up to date information is written in this paper, I have chosen books written by renowned authors. The utilization of famous textbooks ensure that the information is authentic. Classification of Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes can be classified into many ways but the most common two types include type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 1 is also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDMM) and type 2 as Insulin Independent Diabetes Mellitus for the reasons explained in the pathogenesis section. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) are other important types of DM. Analysis and Discussion The incidence rate of Diabetes Mellitus is on the rise and its prevalence has increased markedly over the past two decades. As mentioned in the 2004 statistical report of World Health Organization (WHO) and International diabetes federation, by the year 2030 more than 360 million people will have diabetes. The statistical data also show that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising at a greater rate than the others because of the more sedentary life style of the present generation and increase in obesity which is a leading risk factor for the type 2 DM. According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 7% of the American population had Diabetes in 2005, which is about 20.8 million. (Fauci and Tinsley, 2008). The following figure (Fig 1) represents the geographical distribution of diabetes as of 2000 and also the predicted values for 2030. It is evident from this distribution that Asian region has the highest prevalence of diabetes with America and Europe head to head for the second place. The expected rise in the prevalence of diabetes in the year 2030 is very significant and if the risk factors are not reduced or no steps are taken to change the lifestyle of the current population than it is expected that diabetes will put a heavy burden on the world health system (Poretsky, 2002). Source: Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus, Ekoe?, 2008. The above table shows the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in some Latin-American country. It shows the percentage of total population suffering from diabetes. An important point to remember regarding the incidence rate and prevalence of diabetes is that most of the cases, about 30%, are not reported and are not included in the survey due to certain limitations. So the actual prevalence of diabetes can be more than discussed by these statistical data. Diagnosis According to the American Diabetes Association, the following are the criteria for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Symptoms of diabetes plus random blood glucose concentration 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) or Fasting plasma glucose 7.0 mmol/L ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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