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Diabetes Mellitus- Type II - Essay Example

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Diabetes Mellitus is a multigenic disease prevalent in a large number of people in the population. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors and a change in the lifestyle of the individual have caused the increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. …
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Diabetes Mellitus- Type II
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Download file to see previous pages Initial studies among 16917 individuals in Saudi Arabia (1995-2000) showed the prevalence of the disease in 26.2% of males and 21.5% of females (Al-Nozha, Al-Maatouq, Al-Mazrou, Al-Harthi, & Arafah, 2004). Similar study published in 2012 aimed at determining the prevalence of the disease in Arab countries between the years 1980-2009 showed that Bahrain had an increased prevalence of 5.17 percent, countries like Kuwait, UAE and Qatar showed lesser prevalence rate (Majeed, Alhyas, & McKay, 2012).
There are two types of diabetes mellitus which are differentiated based on the aetiology and pathogenesis involved in the disease. They are classified as Type I Diabetes Mellitus (Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile diabetes) and Type II Diabetes Mellitus (Non-insulin dependent diabetes) (Bottino & Trucco, 2005). It is noted that both have common symptoms and complications but differ in etio-pathogenesis. Type I Diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused due to the selective destruction of the Beta Cells in the pancreas which are responsible for the production of insulin. Type II diabetes is a metabolic disorder which results due to reduced production of insulin and insulin resistance. The commonly seen feature is insulin resistance in diabetes; but hyperglycemia which is also commonly seen in type II diabetes is not seen until there is disturbance in insulin production. Recent studies suggest that some factors that served as distinctive factors in determining the types of diabetes are now seen overlapping in both types. (Bottino & Trucco, 2005). The understanding of the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes begins with the knowledge about the normal glucose homeostasis (DeFronzo, 2004).
ROLE OF GLUCOSE AS THE MAJOR FUEL FOR THE BODY: Glucose is the major source of energy stored as glycogen in the human body. A large amount of the glycogen is seen predominantly in the liver and the skeletal muscles, approximately 500g in skeletal muscles and 100g in the liver. However, it is vital that glucose level should be within safety limit in order to stay healthy. When the body is provided with excess amount of glucose in the form of food, it is the function of the body to maintain the normal level needed for the body and also when there is a deficiency. Maintenance of physiological blood glucose concentration is the main function of glycogen present as a molecule in carbohydrates. As mentioned earlier, skeletal muscle and liver are the two main sources for glycogen. Significant amount of glycogen is present in the brain and heart for certain physiological functions. Approximately 80 percent of glycogen is stored in the skeletal muscles. They form a larger amount since skeletal tissues form 40-50 percent of the body weight. Liver is the most important and the only organ that directly helps in the release of glucose into the blood. Liver being a small organ weighing about 1.5 kg contributes to about 100g of glycogen. Skeletal muscle is unable to release glycogen from its storage into the blood due to the absence of Glucose 6 Phosphate. However, it serves as a source of supply of local energy during exercise. The glycogen so released during the exercise also breaks down into lactose and is then transported to the liver to maintain normal gylcemic level. This is called Cori cycle (Jensen, Rustad, Kolnes, & Lai, 2011). The glycogen stored in skeletal muscles is mainly used as energy source during flight or fright situations. Even when there is an increased amount of muscle glycogen, it is seen ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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