The chapter will present a review of related literature that had been written and published within the same area of concern as this dissertation. Earlier studies conducted on the subject were compiled and evaluated in order to serve as guide in answering the research questions and reaching the objectives of the dissertation.
Canada’s membership in the NAFTA created a concern for wages and other benefits; productivity and efficiency; and labor conditions. There are differing views on this concern. Supporters argue that it will push Canada’s competitiveness on employment. On the other hand, detractors argue that it will just drag down Canada’s economy.
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According to many economists, financial reforms have long term effect on economic development in China affecting markets and the financial intermediaries. The financial sector has contributed to technological innovation and in the accumulation of capital. Banks has been the administrative units which facilitate the working conditions of the central government.
This paper tells that we could easily delineate what labor market is but going through the set of policies itself is comprehensive that one might actually mistake it as a conventional dogma for future economic undertakings when assuming, it really gives an overview of policies to improve the state’s employment programs.
The involuntary adoption of the purposive interpretation of a statute so as to craft glosses on to it, which are not text-based is also a purpose of the statutes’ construction. The British court’s attitude was based upon the perspective of the court’s role. The main role played by tax law statutes in the UK is that of courts’ interpretation.
Today Egypt is considered as one of the steadiest markets which had put an end to centralization and domination of public sectors on the economy. A turnaround in Egypt’s economy is noticed, although there was some financial crisis in 1997 and after 9/11 event, the Egyptian government with some necessary policy measure stabilized the economy.
The researcher states that many factors like the volume of supply and quantity of inventory to be maintained by the organization are dependent upon the demand and supply side factors reigning in the market. Hence, the analysis of production and costs will follow that of an analysis of market forces amidst which Heinz has to function.
The present paper primarily aimed at evaluating whether a financial sector of any economy can have any implications upon the economic development and innovation being carried out in the same. Many research papers have found a direct association between the developments being made in the financial structure and that in its rate of economic growth
According to a research by Nielson on April 9, there is now a greater tendency in consumers to buy large packaged sized products or bundles. About 28% buy the US made products. There has been a 56% decrease in going to restaurants; these people now prefer having food at home. More than one-third i.e. 37% go to bars or clubs less often than before.
Smith in his work also had ideas on natural law, personal liberty and function of the state, which he saw them as passive police officers. He strongly argued that increased production largely depended on the division of labour and specialization. He stated that trade increased divisions of labour, and it increases production.
The importance of universal capital versatility appeared to be a consensual presumption in worldwide trading and lending at the end of the twentieth century. It has made it conceivable to consider current assets deficiencies are sponsored by remote reserve funds, since the recent can without much of a stretch circle between nations.
While child survival rates have increased due to emphasis on child survival, among these survivor groups, there is an increasing population of children with developmental delays. In developing countries, the prevalence of developmental delays among survivors is not known because of a lack of routine screening.
Corporations operating in manufacturing, services, financial, and or banking work in the area of public trust afforded by their size and status. As the complexities, appeasing shareholders, meeting profit targets, and competing in the competitive atmosphere of globalization weigh on corporate decision making, the potential risks cannot be ignored.
The idea of economically mixed local communities is perceived as an ideal because it is believed to be a mechanism for attaining social equality. But doing so requires concerted government intervention, as segregation is a natural tendency. The poor are better able to intermingle with others and benefit mutually by living in segregated communities.
Since all the economies follow a business cycle, there are periods of different growth namely, high growth, low growth, and no growth. The RBC (Real Business Cycle) theory remarkably explains the economic fluctuations and shows how the economic variables change while the economy moves along the crests and troughs of the Business Cycle.
According to the paper, the subprime mortgage crisis was, therefore,e an inevitable outcome after the bursting of the housing bubble. The subprime loans were intricately structured in a layered complex financial model that revolved around many individuals and institutions unlike the traditional ‘prime’ loan that were more conservatively structured.
The paper suggests that the Australian Automotive Industry although has a small domestic market but its market value has a major proportion in the regional markets. The industry remains one of the major contributors to the Australian economy and employs a large workforce throughout the supply chain.
This research will begin with the statement that thousands of corporations are present in the global economic scenario with millions of employees. Many corporations are economically stronger than a bunch of countries put together. In the new global scenario devices of communication have made the corporate structure even more complex and elaborate.
The occurrence of a financial crisis causes some structural effects in key players in the industry. In a study by Aizenman, Glick & Lothian (2010), the trilemma configuration – namely the triple goals of monetary independence, exchange-rate stability, and financial integration – were examined in the context of a financial crisis.
An ideal property cycle according to Ball et al can be characterized as business upturn and development, business downturn and overbuilding, adjustment, slump and the next cycle. Many economic theories have been put forward to explain these five patterns. The business cycle approach, based on the accelerator principle.
The LIBOR rate started to drift down in January 2008 at 3.9 after a high of 5.01 in December 2007. It lingered for a while in the range of 2% + from March to October of 2008, and then dived to the 1%+ range for November and December. For 2009 and the rest of 2010, LIBOR maintained a rate of less than 0.5%.
The author states that the multiplier effect explains how a rise in some economic action initiates a chain reaction that produces more activity as compared to the actual raise. The multiplier effect reveals the impact that reserve conditions - set by the Federal Reserve - have on the US money supply.
For a time it appeared as though the entire financial system was on the point of collapse. There are many possible causes for this problem and for many years to come historians will debate the question of how the American economy found itself in such a mess. Certainly one of the key problems was the ease with which credit was obtainable.
For this purpose, we first provide an economic point of view of the benefits of free trade and a counterpoint of view. We analyze how free trade was evolving before the creation of the WTO and provide a background to the WTO and how it came to be formed we then analyze how the functioning of the WTO has propelled free trade.
It may still be considered inappropriate to adopt the classification system for benchmarking as either internal or external. Just as it was noted by Anand and Kodali, the classification models that had been advanced earlier had various discrepancies that failed to help a user identify which benchmarking type will fit a given classification.
The taxation system of any country is an essential part of the government and its politics. Considering the case of the U.S., it has been obtained that the country’s taxation system has led to several controversies over the years with the system being highly complicated and creating difficulties for the people of the country
Policy instruments which the Member States had previously employed to manage their economies were no longer available to the EU members as per agreement. These policies were previously designed to protect the local market and include import controls, export subsidies, devaluation of national currencies to regional and sectoral subsidies.
Under the Thatcher legacy, some claimed that one of the factors contributing to 1992 UK economic recession was the global recession whereas others pointed the blame on Lawson for failing to recognize the full implications of implementing financial de-regulation on most of its state-owned enterprises within the industrial and service sectors.
Globalization and liberalization policies adopted by many countries have been utilized effectively by China to sell out its products. China believes in mass production rather than the quality of products and hence their product prices are always cheaper which enabled them to achieve some kind of monopoly on consumer goods in the world market.
In this paper, an attempt is made to unmask the approaches that have been put forth by the Kenyan and South African governments. Whereas South Africa scores highly on its efforts to rein in corruption, Kenya’s performance remains abysmal. On this evidence, suggestions are raised in the paper. The suggestions are made in reference to the available lessons.
Trade union activisms have initiated a different paradigm to the industrial world, with their impact on social, political and industrial fields. Trade unions formed by specific individuals who were able to attract large numbers of followers have successfully ignited numerous people in authority for specific reasons.
This paper tells that by legalizing the Federal Income Tax through the 16th and additionally by permitting money to buy influence in Congress through special interest groups, we have created a dangerous system where the public finances can be looted by private interest in collusion with the political parties.
According to the paper, the concept of the open market is premised upon the interaction of many buyers and many sellers of goods and services, with the participants in either side free to make choices to either transact or not, with full information about the products and the conditions of the market. There will be criteria along which lines the decision to transact or not will be made.
The regulator can conduct earnings audit to recalibrate price so that the target rate of return can be achieved unless it is prohibited by law. (Kessides)Although Firms earning do not directly affect prices under pure price cap regime but the provisions are there for price adjustments if a rate of return falls outside the desirable range.
The review of the literature showed that the financial crisis was caused by human and systemic factors that are interrelated. Among the human factors is the relentless drive for profits that stem from a capitalist-based political system where private enterprise is facilitated and rewarded by financial means.
The industrial, domestic and agricultural sectors in India consumed about 829 billion cubic meters of water on an annual basis that is equivalent to the size of the Lake Erie. The demand for potable water in India is likely to double till the year 2050. The water crisis in India is directly linked with the problem of overpopulation.
There are five stages of demographic transition with respect to fertility and mortality. In the first stage, fertility and mortality run parallel to each other. This results in a high proportion of the youth in the country. The energy and innovation of the youth help in growing the economies, which result in increased per capita income.
A very little attention has been given to women that have demonstrated excellent innovation such as Susan Kare- a Mackintosh pioneer, Susan Wojcicki- YouTube head, and Diane Greene- VMWare founder and ex-CEO. Through her program, Women Techmakers, Smith has been able to improve the visibility of women innovators.
Egypt is in a similar situation to Turkey; it imports refined petroleum products. Although it has its own reserves, the country still depends on imported refined petroleum products because it is yet to develop its refineries. If oil prices fluctuate, a noticeable effect is felt in the economy. A fluctuation in oil prices is a double blow for Egypt.
Historians also tend to differ, as far as the onset of this economic decline is concerned decline. A majority of the historians identify the year 1873 as the time when Britain slipped into a prolonged era of economic slowdown. Others argue that the UK experienced remarkable economic growth in the period 1820-1830.
The financial service space is growing at a rapid pace. The industry comprises of a wide range of organizations which are meant to deal with the management of money. These organizations include financial institutions like banks, insurance companies, investment funds, personal finance companies, stock brokerages.
According to the text, the debates on whether import substitution or export promotion policies promote economic growth remains unsettled. Reportedly, while the dependency theories favour import substitution policies promoting economic growth, the neoclassical theories argue in favour of export-led growth.
The field of international finance also studies areas such as international projects, international capital flows, and international trade deficits. International finance is an important feature in explaining the issue of globalization and is characterized by international financial law, global capital markets, international trade.
This study will be limited to Balfour Beatty as a construction company and will, therefore, preclude other of the company’s activities that are not related to construction work. The study will also be focused on the effects of the 2007-2010 financial crisis with little mention of the effects of other financial crises if any.
This essay stresses that the first principle on sustainable development as given in its aspect prompts for working in the direction of setting a vision of sustainable development and determining goals to fulfill that vision. The second aspect of principles is related to the content of any appraisal to create a comprehensive system.
The researcher states that risk assessment of Kuwait that include financial, political risks and the general background information is vital in the analyzing the current environment within which a business can operate. Without deviating from this context, this paper will seek to analyze the country’s risks associated with investing in Kuwait with direct and indirect foreign investments.
The consumption expenditure holds the lion’s share of GDP whereas the investment is much smaller, but concerning government decline of GDP during recessions is generally initiated by decline in investment is a much smaller component of the same, but a decline in GDP during recessions is countercyclically initiated by a decline in investment rather than consumer expenditure.
Hong Kong’s success can be attributed to many factors. However, it is unquestionable that the British have made a lot of impact on Hong Kong’s economy and modernization. When Hong Kong was still not colonized by the British, the lifestyles of the people there are really different from the economic status of Hong Kong today
This essay has traced the antecedents to the current wave of globalization with an emphasis on key global events: the social revolution of the 1960s, the economic crises of the 1970s, neo-liberalism in the 1980s, followed by Communist collapse and the emergence of authoritarian capitalism in East Asia.
As the paper outlines, heroic volunteerism was also seen in the efforts of the conductors who worked in the Underground Railroad in the 19th century. Then you will see how lots of money can help out a cause such as Oprah Winfrey’s work with girls in South Africa, though it may not have been necessary to spend so much money to achieve success.